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Old 7th March 2012, 14:47   #1
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Default The Jugaad

The Jugaad-jugaadwithload.jpg

People living in North India, especially in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab and parts of northern Rajasthan, have seen this vehicle on the highways, in villages and small towns, carrying people, livestock and agricultural produce. It may be an eyesore, it may not pass pollution norms, it may break down frequently, and you would not be caught dead in its driver's seat, never mind driving it, but it certainly keeps the rural economy in some of the most populous states of India on the move - in a very economical manner. Let us take a closer look at the JUGAAD, the benchmark of Indian rural engineering, and find out more.

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Old 7th March 2012, 14:56   #2
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Default History of the Jugaad

History of the Jugaad

Jugaad (Hindi: जुगाड़) literally means improvisation. Making-do is at the heart of the manufacturing process of this vehicle. R&D costs for the jugaad are practically nil, models and designs change from unit to unit, not year to year. Peer-to-peer sharing of information on how best to eliminate the problems cropping up on a previous model, have made the vehicle better and better over the years.

It would be difficult to pinpoint the exact time when jugaads came to be manufactured. Some say that farmers in Punjab put together their carpentry skills to attach a pumpset engine to a steel frame, and 4 wheels to cart around agricultural loads without using livestock. Others say the jugaad industry started in Meerut in the 1950s, with the scrap dealers there having widespread & cheap access to Jeeps being discarded by the Army. The initial chassis, engines and gearboxes were sourced from these Jeeps, and as demand grew, the jugaad stepped in to fill the gap. It therefore continues to bear more than just passing resemblance to an old Jeep, shares similar mechanicals, and for economical running, now has a single cylinder diesel engine powering it.

The Jugaad-jugaad.jpg

The Jugaad-jugaad200.jpg

Over time, the term jugaad has come to mean this particular type of vehicle; it has also come to mean grassroots innovation to overcome any difficulty or obstruction, and is supposed to be a part of management teaching (to be confirmed by other members here).

The three-wheeled cousin of the Jugaad is called the Chhakda, and is prevalent throughout Gujarat, parts of south Rajasthan and north Maharashtra. It was originally based on adapting and modifying ancient Harley Davidson motorcycle frames, but usually shares the same engine(s) with the Jugaad.

The Jugaad-chhakda200.jpg

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Old 7th March 2012, 19:26   #3
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Default The Jugaad Engine

The Jugaad Engine

The original design of the engine that powers the Jugaad dates back more than a century.
R A Lister and Company - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cutaway view of a Lister engine: Pic. courtesy Wikipedia
The Jugaad-lister_engine_sectionedk200.jpg

Link to the website of the original manufacturers of these engines: ALL OVER THE WORLD

There are numerous manufacturers of the Listeroid & Petteroid diesel engines in single cylinder and two cylinder configurations, though Kirloskar was the first manufacturer to build them in India. Locally, these engines continue to be known as Kirloskar engines, even though made by a host of manufacturers. Brands include Ashwamegh, Noble, Kapson and Grover among others, and the manufacturers are spread over western UP from Ghaziabad to Meerut to Agra. Jugaads use these engines as the powerhouse. Generally, a single cylinder water cooled Petteroid engine is used.

The Jugaad-engine1.jpg

The Jugaad-engine2.jpg

These are usually vertical single cylinder DI diesel engines with displacement ranging from ~500 cc to ~650 cc, depending on the bore of the cylinder, with power output ranging from 5-8 HP. The basic components like crankshaft, connecting rod, bearings etc. are sourced from a standardised common pool, and the foundry work & assembly are carried out by each manufacturer (some just assemble the engines from components sourced from the market).

Preference is for water cooled engines to cope with the extreme summer heat and severe overload conditions that these vehicles face, though similar air-cooled engines are also available. The water pump is driven via a drive belt on the rear end of the engine, with the radiator coming in a huge variety of shapes and sizes. Chhakdas in Gujarat use the air-cooled variety of these engines.

Engines are started by cranking a handle, and the gravity feed fuel tank is attached above the engine itself. Though diesel is the preferred fuel, these engines will continue to run comparatively happily even on kerosene, vegetable oils and spent engine oil, or a deadly cocktail of all these. Do NOT discuss pollution control measures with owners/drivers of these vehicles, because that may be even more detrimental to your health than breathing in the exhaust fumes.

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Old 7th March 2012, 21:53   #4
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Default Chassis, Transmission & Brakes

Chassis, Transmission & Brakes

The Jugaad's chassis is refreshingly simple: two I-beams placed side-by-side, with cross-beams welded to each other, to create a ladder-frame. On this, the load bay and driver's seat are fabricated of wood and installed with heavy U-bolts. The engine mounting plate is directly welded onto the chassis, and the engine bolted on - no such niceties as rubberised engine mounts, which reduce discomfort but increase cost.

Drive is taken from the engine via pulleys and belts to a shaft running below the high-mounted engine...

The Jugaad-dsc07310k200.jpg

...to the clutch and gearbox...

The Jugaad-gbclutch.jpg

...and then driving the rear wheels through a propshaft & differential.

The Jugaad-underjugaad.jpg

I am told these are Jeep gearboxes, and that some may be 3-speed, some may be 4-speed, and one can opt not to have a reverse gear. No idea who manufactures them either. Others may please contribute their inputs regarding the gearboxes, their design, and where they are manufactured.

Brakes are of the drum type, and may be hydraulic, but those running on mechanical linkages are also available. The stopping power of fully laden vehicles can be understood better in perspective if I said that the Rajdhani Express can stop on a dime, but the Jugaad cannot. If you are being followed by a Jugaad at 40 km/h, do remember not to brake for minor obstructions ahead; the Jugaad's, in all likelihood, would not like your brakes to be doing their job too well, and will extract expensive revenge on your car's rear bumper.

And here's a view of the HOT seat!

The Jugaad-steering.jpg

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Old 7th March 2012, 22:22   #5
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Default Prices & Performance

Prices & Performance

Jugaads cost between Rs.80,000 and Rs.1,50,000 depending on the option packs one chooses (engines, gearbox, brakes, decoration etc.).

Road tax, registration & insurance costs: What's that? The buyer is a legitimate voter in the constituency where the vehicle will ply, and that is all that matters. No offence can be registered against a Jugaad because cops feign ignorance that such a vehicle even exists - so check the validity and sufficiency of your own vehicle and health insurance before approaching a Jugaad too closely.

Direct delivery from the manufacturers against cash payment. Vehicles are custom made to order within 5-7 days, though the basic chassis and components are already prepared & stocked in advance. The best manufacturers are said to be located at Garh Mukteshwar and Meerut.

Top speed: Approximately 60 km/h. The speedometer is an expensive option pack that no one wants.

Payload: One tonne. 1.25 tonnes if really required, but owner understands the risk of breakdowns if he loads beyond 1 tonne.

Fuel efficiency: 16-20 km/litre of diesel, depending on load and road conditions. FE unknown when using alternate fuels.

Disclaimer: I have not driven a Jugaad - yet!

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Old 8th March 2012, 11:41   #6
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Default Re: The Jugaad

Thread moved from the Assembly Line to the Commercial Vehicles section. Thanks for sharing!
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Old 8th March 2012, 11:58   #7
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Default Re: The Jugaad

Oh My God ! Was an eye opener to say the least. Myself being form the south, have never seen such a vehicle in metal. All along i was of the thought that these are all modified bullets/autos/tractors. Never knew the engine details either. Amazing to say the least.

But the illegality of operating such a vehicle quite so openly is quite shocking. What are the traffic cops for?

By the way how much does ABS/Airbags safety package cost?
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Old 8th March 2012, 12:02   #8
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Absolutely wonderful, i recall reading an American blog about Jugad. These vehicles show the spirit of survival and Innovation in India, right at our doorstep.

Another similar implementation is Bhat Suar. Its usually found in Bhopal, Gwalior and parts of Chattisgarh (Raipur, Durg and Bhilai). They are bone rattlers and from front look like a Pig. They usually have a handle like gear lever to change gears. If i remember it correctly it has only 3 forward and 1 reverse gear.

This is better then Auto as it can ferry more passengers around, another variation of this is to ferry goods and farm produce around by removing the seats at the back.

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Old 8th March 2012, 12:12   #9
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Default Re: The Jugaad

Don't get me started on this.

All along, cops check for documentation, fine if on phone, driving w/o seat-belts or riding w/o helmet, but I am yet to spot this jugaad gaadi being stopped despite so many accidents reported that I have lost count of it.

How can it ply on our roads is beyond my understanding. What is the nexus? Rs. 20 notes exchanging hands? This wasn't in my part (region) till about 3 years ago & suddenly stormed as if someone hurled a stone at the bee-hive.

The accidents I have mentioned are reported on local dailies almost every week. Even the dailies in their report question its road-worthiness, still no action is taken.

What the administration can do is provide easy loans for commercial vehicles for jugaad gaadi owners, it would do them a world of good and make the roads much safer.

As a precaution, if I am approaching a railway crossing and spot this contraption, I stop and let it cross as I fear it might roll down (if laden) or scratch my Car.

All I do whenever I spot one of these is...

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Old 8th March 2012, 12:21   #10
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Default Re: The Jugaad

Woaah never knew such contraptions existed in India and could be driven around doing chores without a valid registration. Thanks for putting up a thread here ss-t.

Quote:
Originally Posted by mayankjha1806 View Post
Another similar implementation is Bhat Suar. Its usually found in Bhopal, Gwalior and parts of Chattisgarh (Raipur, Durg and Bhilai). They are bone rattlers and from front look like a Pig. They usually have a handle like gear lever to change gears. If i remember it correctly it has only 3 forward and 1 reverse gear.
These were called the Tempo Hanseat from Bajaj and were very much legal. Atleast I remember these in bangalore with valid registration plates, unlike what is posted by SS-T.
A relative of mine had two of these hanseats back home in Kerala and I remember the ruckus they would create when started.
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Old 8th March 2012, 12:23   #11
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Default Re: The Jugaad

Quote:
Originally Posted by mayankjha1806 View Post
Absolutely wonderful, i recall reading an American blog about Jugad. These vehicles show the spirit of survival and Innovation in India, right at our doorstep.

Another similar implementation is Bhat Suar. Its usually found in Bhopal, Gwalior and parts of Chattisgarh (Raipur, Durg and Bhilai). They are bone rattlers and from front look like a Pig. They usually have a handle like gear lever to change gears. If i remember it correctly it has only 3 forward and 1 reverse gear.

This is better then Auto as it can ferry more passengers around, another variation of this is to ferry goods and farm produce around by removing the seats at the back.

Attachment 899224
Attachment 899225
Those look like Tempo hanseats. http://www.team-bhp.com/forum/commer...eler-taxi.html (3-Wheeler taxi) for more info !
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Old 8th March 2012, 12:43   #12
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Default Re: The Jugaad

Is that a steering wheel shaft or a spear waiting to impale the driver in a head-on collision?

Jugaad is apparently the most preferred dowry item in those areas.
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Old 8th March 2012, 13:10   #13
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Default Re: The Jugaad

Excellent article SS! Should go to some auto magazine or newspaper.

Has anyone noticed that front grill!? Gives a new definition to Aero-dynamic.

now on Juggad, though i come from that area, have seen numerous, still i have phobia of them. These are the most dangerous thing ever invaded our roads. and as you mentioned can't be mentioned in RTO and FIRs. they got No "License to Kill" and kills everyday dozen of people. Sometimes even children who use them to commutate to school from their villages. that breaks my heart. :-(
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Old 8th March 2012, 14:12   #14
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Default Re: The Jugaad

Very nice effort on documenting Jugaad.

Few might know that in Punjab it is also called Maruta (male version of Maruti)

I have honour of travelling in Jugaad once . Ride is like travelling in a tractor-trolly, rather better than that due leafspring based (or whatever it is) suspension. In Punjab and Haryana many smaller private schools use these to ferry children.
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Old 8th March 2012, 14:49   #15
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Default Re: The Jugaad

Excellent thread Dada. I've seen a lot of these vehicles in Northern India and Gujarat (even had the err, misfortune of riding a Chhakra once), and wondered what makes these contraptions roll. Just came to know the "technology" that goes behind these masterpieces.

Quote:
Originally Posted by SS-Traveller View Post
[b]The stopping power of fully laden vehicles can be understood better in perspective if I said that the Rajdhani Express can stop on a dime, but the Jugaad cannot. If you are being followed by a Jugaad at 40 km/h, do remember not to brake for minor obstructions ahead; the Jugaad's, in all likelihood, would not like your brakes to be doing their job too well, and will extract expensive revenge on your car's rear bumper.


Quote:
Originally Posted by mayankjha1806 View Post
Another similar implementation is Bhat Suar.
Actually no. The Bhat Suar, as Greenhorn pointed out, is based on the Tempo Hanseat. In my childhood there were numerous tempo load carriers in Kolkata. In 1988 we shifted to our (current) house in Salt Lake, and I (all of 8 years old) was given the privilege to sit beside the driver of the tempo carrying our belongings. Till this day I remember the deafening din of the engine, the overpowering smell of diesel in the cabin, and the complete lack of space. The gear lever jutted out of the dashboard. The driver seemed like superman to me, wrestling with the noisy, smelly beast confined to a straitjacket like cabin.

Will not detail the technological aspects of the Tempo Hanseat ("kainchi axles" and all that) as they've been adequately documented in other threads. But with all due respect, the Tempo was an engineering marvel compared to the Jugaad!

Quote:
Originally Posted by kamboj View Post
Very nice effort on documenting Jugaad.

Few might know that in Punjab it is also called Maruta (male version of Maruti)

I have honour of travelling in Jugaad once. Ride is like travelling in a tractor-trolly, rather better than that due leafspring based (or whatever it is) suspension. In Punjab and Haryana many smaller private schools use these to ferry children.
You should try a Chhakra once. Due to the complete lack of suspension, road imperfections will make you jump upto 6 inches from your seat. Your ears will be deafened by the noise, and the smell of fuel sorta helps to cover the smell of the rural janta you're packed in with
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