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Old 18th June 2015, 19:51   #436
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Default Re: Airbus A320 Long-Term, 3 Million KMs Review

Contrails are produced by all aircraft at certain altitude, based on the temperature and mintra and maxtra levels for that day. India we can't spot it from the ground, due severe air pollution that we have over our cities and towns. In fact if you happen to see from the cockpit, over every city, at about 8-10000 feet, we can clearly spot a browish layer of haze, suspended over the city, indicating the severe levels of pollution in the air. In Europe and USA, the air is much cleaner and thus it is easier to spot the contrails.
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Old 21st June 2015, 07:46   #437
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Default Re: Airbus A320 Long-Term, 3 Million KMs Review

a little video tutorial on contrails:

http://www.boldmethod.com/blog/crash...ontrails-form/
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Old 21st June 2015, 11:20   #438
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For those who are interested in the aviation industry and would like a good update of what's happening, get yourself a copy of the latest Flight International issue, (9-15June). Excellent update on all aviation industry happenings as it has a special on this years Paris Air Show.

Whilst back in Europe I used to visit this show frequently. Always very impressive and living in the Netherlands we could do it in one day. Honestly, I always like the UK Farnborough Air Show even better, although smaller then Paris.

Quite a few articles about Airbus and the latest developments. Current production rate of the Airbus 320 is 42 a month and that is being ramped up to an unprecedented 50 a month, first quarter 2017! And it could go up to 60 a month two years later. With an existing back log of 1350 current model A320 a very impressive track record which reflects the interest of carriers in this model. Boeing isn't far of in production rates for their 737 series either and is ramping up too.

On a more sobering note: Various articles in the Sunday morning Times of India, regarding 5 near misses in the Mumbai airspace in the last four months. When I googled for some more information I noticed many articles/reports going back several years, with more of the same; a long string of near misses in and around Mumbai airspace.

According to the ToI all due to understaffing of Mumbai ATC. It briefly mentioned the lack of proper systems to handle the ever increasing work load of controllers.

Quite a sobering thought as I travel to and from Mumbai several times a week!

Jeroen
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Old 20th July 2015, 14:32   #439
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Some interesting data, the yearly outlook on the aviation industry by Airbus:

http://www.pilootenvliegtuig.nl/wp-c...ook-Airbus.pdf

And the Boeing outlook

http://www.boeing.com/commercial/mar...g-term-market/

Quite the growth industry!

Enjoy

Last edited by Jeroen : 20th July 2015 at 14:34.
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Old 21st July 2015, 10:52   #440
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Default Re: Airbus A320 Long-Term, 3 Million KMs Review

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Originally Posted by Jeroen View Post
.


On a more sobering note: Various articles in the Sunday morning Times of India, regarding 5 near misses in the Mumbai airspace in the last four months. When I googled for some more information I noticed many articles/reports going back several years, with more of the same; a long string of near misses in and around Mumbai airspace.

According to the ToI all due to understaffing of Mumbai ATC. It briefly mentioned the lack of proper systems to handle the ever increasing work load of controllers.

Quite a sobering thought as I travel to and from Mumbai several times a week!

Jeroen
Its a bunch of hogwash, written mostly by the unread holding typewriters. I suspect this because the so called 'journalists' are pretty far from being that.
What is their definition of a near miss? I am sure you know in aviation parlance there is no room for ambiguous terms such as near, close by, few etc. All communication has to be precise and factual.
By near miss if they are saying an air proximity incident involving a tcas TA or RA, sorry there is not any I know of, atleast near Mumbai.
If they are saying a go around conducted because ATC asked the pilots to do so,it is routine and happens in the most busy airspaces, infact I went around twice in Dubai because ATC couldn't guarantee adequate separation (landing aircraft had not vacated the runway)

The shortage of ATC staff is a serious issue and the government is taking steps to adjust it. However making a story involving some serious threat to safety, all in order to sell their yellow rags, IMO is pushing it. I wish India had defamation laws and we could sue, some of the so called big newspapers would have folded down.
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Old 21st July 2015, 13:49   #441
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Default Re: Airbus A320 Long-Term, 3 Million KMs Review

[quote=apachelongbow;3758289.
What is their definition of a near miss? I am sure you know in aviation parlance there is no room for ambiguous terms such as near, close by, few etc. All communication has to be precise and factual.
By near miss if they are saying an air proximity incident involving a tcas TA or RA, sorry there is not any I know of, atleast near Mumbai.
If they are saying a go around conducted because ATC asked the pilots to do so,it is routine and happens in the most busy airspaces, infact I went around twice in Dubai because ATC couldn't guarantee adequate separation (landing aircraft had not vacated the runway)

The shortage of ATC staff is a serious issue and the government is taking steps to adjust it. However making a story involving some serious threat to safety, all in order to sell their yellow rags, IMO is pushing it. I wish India had defamation laws and we could sue, some of the so called big newspapers would have folded down.[/quote]

Thanks, I agree. Near misses (as say per FAA regulations) are always rated as serious incidents in the USA and thus reported and investigated.
Do the Indian authorities publicize incidents/accident reports on a regular basis publicly.

As you say, go around happens routinely, been there, done that.

But there does seem to be a genuine staff shortage issue and possible a system issues as well to deal with? Aviation history has shown in other regions that both factors are likely to increase the number of serious incidents although it is usually difficult if not impossible to make a straight forward correlation.

Jeroen
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Old 23rd July 2015, 08:40   #442
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Just came across this news item. It's a bit of a departure from the theme pilotless plane. Here a robot is replacing the co-pilot.

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/21/sc...lias.html?_r=1

Jeroen
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Old 24th August 2015, 09:16   #443
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Pretty scary story:

http://avherald.com/h?article=48b217ed&opt=0

Jeroen
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Old 24th August 2015, 10:12   #444
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Default Re: Airbus A320 Long-Term, 3 Million KMs Review

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Originally Posted by directinjection View Post
Interesting Thread!
Isn't that more than Mach 1? Did you encounter sonic boom? Can A320 withstand one?
Quote:
Originally Posted by Gannu_1 View Post
Mach 1?!

Was it just momentary? Is the structure of a commercial airliner meant to withstand high speeds like this? .
Not sure if this has been answered in this thread -

It was given that the plane was flying with the wind, so

https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/...peed_of_sound/

The velocity of sound = speed of the wave + speed of the wind in that direction, hence the speed of sound towards the front of the plane is higher than 340 m/s, so that plane has to go much faster than 340 m/s to cross the sound barrier.

Last edited by clevermax : 24th August 2015 at 10:13.
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Old 24th August 2015, 10:54   #445
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Originally Posted by clevermax View Post
Not sure if this has been answered in this thread -

It was given that the plane was flying with the wind, so

https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/...peed_of_sound/

The velocity of sound = speed of the wave + speed of the wind in that direction, hence the speed of sound towards the front of the plane is higher than 340 m/s, so that plane has to go much faster than 340 m/s to cross the sound barrier.

Its a little bit more complex than that. If you google it you will find many explanations and you have to shift through a lot of simplifications. It is a bit like explaining how a wing develops lift. Lots of variations to be found, very few of them correct or at best partially correct.

Here is an interesting discussion on the speed of sound phenomena:

https://www.physicsforums.com/thread...travel.149392/

All about relative/absolute speeds and a lot of fluid dynamics.

Jeroen
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Old 24th August 2015, 12:40   #446
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Default Re: Airbus A320 Long-Term, 3 Million KMs Review

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Originally Posted by Jeroen View Post
Pretty scary story
Two major points stick out -

1. The logic of Trivandrum airport authorities to take out their ILS system for up-gradation before waiting for a month or so by when rains would have stopped. Do note that Kerala does not encounter fog like in Delhi during winters, hence major usage of ILS is during monsoon months.

2. I am not sure if there are any DGCA guideline on reserve fuel policy, can anyone let know what is the usual amount of reserve fuel in these kinds of flights? Kochin - Trivandrum is less than 200 KM's, add to that 7 landing and tries. I don't think it would have taken more than couple of hours of extra flying at max.
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Old 24th August 2015, 15:12   #447
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Default Re: Airbus A320 Long-Term, 3 Million KMs Review

Dont know about DGCA/Indian standards, but here is what ICAO says and I would assume India to be very close to this:

Per ICAO Annex 6, Part I, section 4.3.6 "Fuel Requirements," airplanes should calculate their required fuel quantity as follows

Taxi fuel
Trip fuel (to reach intended destination)
Contingency fuel (higher of 5% of "trip fuel" or 5 minutes of holding flight)
Destination alternate fuel (to fly a missed and reach an alternate)
Final reserve fuel (45 minutes of holding flight for reciprocating engines, 30 minutes for jets)
Additional fuel (if needed to guarantee ability to reach an alternate with an engine failure or at lower altitude due to a pressurization loss)
Discretionary fuel (if the pilot in command wants it)

If you want to simplify it comes down to 45 minutes worth of fuel in hold and or the ability to reach the alternate. Give or take for loss of engine and some other stuff.

Under FAA IFR rules, as part of the flightplan, at least two alternate destinations get choossen. During the flight you need to monitor the actual weathers and forecast of your destination and alternates as weather (and forecast) could change considerably.

Next to the formal minimum fuel requirements most airline companies will have company specific instructions on how to deal with minimum fuel and alternate planning.

In the little planes I fly, minimum fuel requirement is somewhat simpler:

For IFR, enough fuel to reach destination, then alternate (if required), plus 45 minutes
For day VFR, enough fuel to reach destination plus 30 minutes
For night VFR, enough fuel to reach destination plus 45 minutes

Picking your alternates is critical, because you dont want to end up with a alternate that has worse conditions then your destination or have a more challenging/difficult approach. So under IFR you better make sure your alternates have a good Precision Approach available to you. Or better yet, try and find an alternate with VFR conditions.

I would also like to pick my alternates in such a way I could reach them before my final destination. Because it would ensure I would have plenty of fuel if I had to divert to my alternate. Legally you can just overfly your destination if you cant land and proceed to your alternate, as long as you stick to the legal requirements. I have said this several times, just because its legal, doesnt mean you can/should do more and or better.

Fuel planning and subsequent pilot decision during the flight is a complex task and you need to factor in a lot of variables. For instance, your fuel consumption in a hold, as per the requirement, can vary considerably depending on which altitude you need to hold. Weather can and does change all the time.

As the saying goes in aviation: On the ground fuel is expensive, but once you are up in the air, it becomes priceless!

I will be honest, running out of fuel, was definitely one of my big worries when I flew. So I made sure I stayed well, well, above all legal requirements. Even during day VFR in wich the minimum requirement is just 30 minutes of fuel, I would make sure I would have more. It also does matter how many airports there are near and how fast you can get there. Aroudn Kansas City there were at least 7-8 airports within a 25 miles radius. But as you started flying west onto the prairies you might actually find yourself without any airport for hundred of miles around you. You need to factor all of this in, constantly monitor and decide to press ahead to your original destination or to divert to an alternate, your planned alternate, or maybe event hat might require a last minute change.

Jeroen


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Old 30th August 2015, 15:13   #448
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Default Re: Airbus A320 Long-Term, 3 Million KMs Review

I hope the Trivandrum incident will not be brushed under the carpet as seems to be the case with many such serious incidents in India. Hopefully the DGCA enquiry report will see the light of the day (to the general public). All on board that Jet Airways flight were really lucky. I believe the aircraft had no more fuel left for any further attempts but lucklily the seventh attempt (3 at COK and 4 at TRV) came through .


Indian commercial aviation has of late have had a succession of near missess. Some of the aircraft suffered extensive damage.

One was the Spice Jet Q400 runway incident at Hubli.

http://avherald.com/h?article=482df900

There was yet another fuel emergency at Jaipur of Air India last year.


http://avherald.com/h?article=46e20f3a



Jet airways had another serious incident on a Delhi Leh flight barely a one month before the fuel emergency at Trivandrum.

http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/j.../1/450601.html


These were not the only ones in the last few years. Spice Jet had landing incidents at Tuticorin and Allahabad, Air India Express in addition the avoidable fatal crash at Mangalore soon after that had another serious "inflight upset" near Pune.

http://avherald.com/h?article=433d30d2

A similar incident to the Air India Express one near Pune was reported on a Jet Airways flights enroute to Brussels.

http://www.dnaindia.com/money/report...tablet-2010692.


Kingfisher had an aircraft seriously damaged at Mumbai in 2009, Air Deccan had another almost brand new ATR 72 scrapped after a heavy landing at Bangalore in 2006.
http://aviation-safety.net/database/...?id=20060311-0.

In all these incidents except the Air India one at Mangalore , there was fortunately no loss of lives.

But all these "near misses" and quite a few others spread accross a cross section of India's airlines , to me raises an important question - are safety issues not getting the due priority it deserves in India?

Also are we not learning from past incidents? The Air India Express and Jet Airways "inflight upsets" had similarlities with co- pilots in charge when the the incidents happened. Less than two years after the "out of fuel" landing at Jaipur, we have the recent one of Jet Airways at Trivandrum, and way back in 1993 we had an even more serious near disaster near Tirupati where an Indian Airlines A300 ran out of fuel and landed on a field.
http://aviation-safety.net/database/...?id=19931115-1
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Old 31st August 2015, 09:15   #449
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I hope the Trivandrum incident will not be brushed under the carpet as seems to be the case with many such serious incidents in India. Hopefully the DGCA enquiry report will see the light of the day (to the general public).

But all these "near misses" and quite a few others spread accross a cross section of India's airlines , to me raises an important question - are safety issues not getting the due priority it deserves in India?
A few thoughts and comments:

The reports that ultemately show up on Aviation Herald are pretty random. So you cant judge if it's the tip of the iceberg or all, or anything in between. Meaning you cant use their data, e.g. number of incidents in India and or Indian carriers to compare to other countries and or carriers.

you will need to rely on other sources to do so. This very thread has some very good discussion of how safe the Indian skies are. I just checked, cant find these anymore?? Anyway, one pilot claimed the Indian skies are the safest, which I contested, based on then ICAO ratings and a few months later India actually lost its ICAO category 1 rating and was degraded to category 2. This is eumphermistaclly also known as the "Sub Sahara Country standard".

Since, but it took close to two years. India has regained its Category 1 rating. http://www.thehindu.com/opinion/blog...cle7085589.ece

Mind you, this rating is around "oversight" so not necessarily individual carriers as such. Even so, for all intents and purposes, it is a good indicator where the Indian aviation Industyr stands.

The very fact that India ICAO rating was degraded is probably symptometic of an underlying problem. Just because things work fine today, doesnt mean its a given it will do so tomorrow. I encounter that in my professional capacity in India daily.

Co-pilots are not "in charge" as such, but the could be the pilot doing the actual flying. On commercial aircraft with two pilots, captain and co-pilot the captain would, typically be, the so called PIC or pilot in command.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pilot_in_command

Which means he or she is ultemately responsible for the operation and safety of the flight, no matter who is doing the actual flying.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_...r_(aeronautics)

Jeroen

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Old 15th September 2015, 08:54   #450
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Default Re: Airbus A320 Long-Term, 3 Million KMs Review

Not starting a controversy here but FAA ratings are quite subjective to the country and their relationship with USA. Not saying India has the safest skies or something but considering the quality of aviation in SE Asia or China I wonder how planes keep aloft at all. Yet they are class 1. Forget them, recently a US carrier sent a non ETOPS aircraft on a ETOPS route to Hawai and no one including flight crew suspected they were flying the wrong aircraft. Worse FAA laughed it off. A couple of US planes icluding an airforce plane landed on a completely wrong airport, yet it was only a wink wink nod nod by FAA. Ideally they must have been degraded...
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