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Old 7th January 2015, 10:01   #1
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Default Cargo ship with 1400 Jaguars / Land Rovers runs aground

Read in the papers first and found the link.

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A cargo ship which is stranded in the Solent after it was deliberately run aground could be refloated on Wednesday, salvors have said.

The Hoegh Osaka ran aground off the Isle of Wight on Saturday and is listing at 52 degrees on Bramble Bank.

During a press conference, Bram Sperling, from salvors Svitzer, said conditions could be favourable for a refloat at high tide on Wednesday.

He said a decision would be made on Tuesday night.

Mr Sperling, who is leading an 18-strong team, said there was now some water inside the ship.
For complete article: Click here

Last edited by moralfibre : 7th January 2015 at 10:10. Reason: Reformatting content
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Old 7th January 2015, 10:13   #2
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Default re: Cargo ship with 1400 Jaguars / Land Rovers runs aground

6-7 years ago, during ballast exchange operations another car carrier named Cougar Ace with a shipment of Mazdas began listing before entering US territorial waters. The crew abandoned the ship. This is when highly paid salvage experts stepped in and did this: Article link.

The aforementioned ship will also be rescued but the cargo will most likely be thrashed and junked.


EDIT: Salvage teams have already boarded the ship. News link

Last edited by moralfibre : 7th January 2015 at 10:16.
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Old 7th January 2015, 13:06   #3
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Default re: Cargo ship with 1400 Jaguars / Land Rovers runs aground

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Originally Posted by altoman View Post
For complete article: Click here
The article states that the ship started listing shortly after it left the port and was run aground to save it from capsizing but nowhere does it state the reasons for the listing.

So what can be the various reasons that a 51 tonner starts listing while being run by a specialised crew.

The cargo in this case being just 1/3rd of the capacity i.e. 1,400 cars on board, including 1,200 Jaguar and Land Rover products, 65 Minis, a Rolls Royce Wraith as well as 105 JCB machines must be all insured in my opinion and the loss suffered will be of the insurance companies and the prospective buyers who will have to wait for another such consignment.
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Old 7th January 2015, 14:09   #4
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Dear Fellows,

The most probable and common reason for the ship listing like this is a phenomenon called developing "Negative GM". For easier understanding- it is becoming 'Top Heavy'.

This phenomenon is very common on Car Carriers, who have a very low 'Stability'. Stability of a ship, is the tendency on that ship to return to the upright position when tilted or listed ('heeled' is the more correct term).

It basically depends on the location of the center of gravity of the ship. The lower the CG, the more stable the ship is.

In car carriers, the CG is very high from the keel. Normally ships have their fuel tanks at the bottom. So, consumption of the fuel from the bottom tanks makes the ship lighter at the bottom and more top heavy.

When the ship looses sufficient fuel to become too top heavy it may start to capsize as there is no Positive Stability.

Technically speaking there is a couple of forces formed which 'Right' the heeled ship. But when the ship becomes top heavy, and develops a Negative Stability, this same righting couple acts as a capsizing lever. The ship, once heeled over, instead of getting upright, develops a Capsizing Moment and lists uncontrollably and may sink.

I will post the simplified diagrams if anyone is interested.

Hope I have not made the issue more complicated!

Thanks.

Another reason may be shifting of cargo, but it is not very likely.

Last edited by Rudra Sen : 7th January 2015 at 16:12.
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Old 7th January 2015, 15:44   #5
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Default re: Cargo ship with 1400 Jaguars / Land Rovers runs aground

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Originally Posted by Capt. Shyam View Post
Dear Fellows,

The most probable and common reason for the ship listing like this is a phenomenon called developing "Negative GM". For easier understanding- it is becoming 'Top Heavy'.

Thanks.
Thanks for the explanation and feel free to post the diagrams through which we will be able to increase our knowledge.

regards.
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Old 7th January 2015, 16:45   #6
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Default re: Cargo ship with 1400 Jaguars / Land Rovers runs aground

According to Reuters calculations, 1,200 of the company's (Jaguar Land Rover) luxury cars could be worth close to 100 million pounds ($151.80 million) aboard the 51,000-tonne car transporter ship that has run aground in the English Channel.

Source: http://auto.ndtv.com/news/over-150-m...-at-sea-723655
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Old 7th January 2015, 17:58   #7
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Default re: Cargo ship with 1400 Jaguars / Land Rovers runs aground

Quote:
Originally Posted by Capt. Shyam View Post
This phenomenon is very common on Car Carriers, who have a very low 'Stability'. Stability of a ship, is the tendency on that ship to return to the upright position when tilted or listed ('heeled' is the more correct term).

It basically depends on the location of the center of gravity of the ship. The lower the CG, the more stable the ship is.

In car carriers, the CG is very high from the keel. Normally ships have their fuel tanks at the bottom. So, consumption of the fuel from the bottom tanks makes the ship lighter at the bottom and more top heavy.

When the ship looses sufficient fuel to become too top heavy it may start to capsize as there is no Positive Stability.
Thanks for the explanation.

My doubt was with regards to the point about the bottom of the ship being lighter in this case. The cargo load was already mentioned as less than the rated capacity of the ship, and also the ship hadn't really gotten that far from the port of origin before which this behavior was observed.

How come it became top heavy within such a short distance?
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Old 7th January 2015, 18:08   #8
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Default re: Cargo ship with 1400 Jaguars / Land Rovers runs aground

There are no gauges/meters to calculate the stability. It is based on computer aided simulation. The actual condition may differ slightly, substantially if the calculations are not done properly.

It is possible that the vessel sailed out with a negative GM. In the calm inland waters the effect of negative GM may not be very apparent.

There are few examples of Car Carriers capsizing in the port.

Actually it is quite amazing that the Master (Captain) could make out that the ship was about to capsize.
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Old 7th January 2015, 18:33   #9
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Default Re: Cargo ship with 1400 Jaguars / Land Rovers runs aground

The Hoegh Osaka vehicle carrier was deliberately run aground at Bramble Bank in England. The 51,000 tonne vessel departed from Southampton & was heading towards the Middle East after a stop over at Germany, when it began listing dangerously. The crew had to run the vessel into the sandbank to prevent it from capsizing. The disaster was averted, but on board are around 1,200 Jaguar Land Rover vehicles among other cars, including 65 MINIs, a Rolls-Royce Wraith as well multiple JCB diggers.

Link to Team-BHP news article
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Old 7th January 2015, 18:41   #10
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Default Re: Cargo ship with 1400 Jaguars / Land Rovers runs aground

Quote:
Originally Posted by luvtandon View Post

So what can be the various reasons that a 51 tonner starts listing while being run by a specialised crew.
The crew may be specialised and trained but there are "n" number of reasons for a ship listing and as it happens in many cases eventually sinking. We may never really know the real reason for the sinking as the investigation reports are seldom made public and known to usually within closed circles.

Also, the ship was not a 51 tonner but actually a 17,000 tonner or more exactly a 16,886 DWT vessel which was partially loaded

Quote:
Originally Posted by Capt. Shyam View Post
The most probable and common reason for the ship listing like this is a phenomenon called developing "Negative GM". For easier understanding- it is becoming 'Top Heavy'.
Capt. Shyam has given a very nice and simplified explanation of the forces acting which cause a ship to list and then perhaps capsize and I agree with him in that I too am surprised that the Captain was able to ascertain that the vessel was going to capsize and thus ran the ship aground!!

Quote:
Originally Posted by benbsb29 View Post
Thanks for the explanation.

My doubt was with regards to the point about the bottom of the ship being lighter in this case. The cargo load was already mentioned as less than the rated capacity of the ship, .....

How come it became top heavy within such a short distance?
The bottom of the ship itself wasn't / isn't lighter than the top. Capt is referring to the CG (centre of gravity) which was higher than is deemed acceptable and thus caused the ship to list.

Now the real question is why was the ship unstable (CG high) and as I mentioned above this could be because of many reasons and the exact reason in this case may not be publicly known.

Very simplistically speaking, it is the same reason you will crouch down when you feel like you are going to fall or you stoop down while climbing up a hill or a steep incline - all in a effort to lower your CG and gain more stability. Or you can compare this to the CG of an SUV / Truck being higher than say a Sedan and hence being inherently less stable around corners and more prone to overturning.
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Old 8th January 2015, 06:31   #11
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Default Re: Cargo ship with 1400 Jaguars / Land Rovers runs aground

There are a few instances in the case of Hoegh Osaka where the Ship’s Staff could have Identified there was a problem.

1. At Port, when the JCBs were being loaded. Due to the access weight of each unit (Between 5 to 50 Tonnes depending on the size of each JCB.) the ship would have “Listed” over to one side. As the weight of each JCB is known, the calculated “List” due to each unit loaded is also known. If she goes over more than the calculated angle of list, it is a clear indicator that what has been calculated on the computer is different from the actual condition of the ship.
2. When the ship was moving off the Dock, she would most certainly have had at least one tug pulling her off the berth. As the tug pulls on the rope, all Ships tend to “Heel” over towards the tug. This is very prominent on a Car Carrier. In the case of the Hoegh Osaka an excess of this “Heel” would also be a good indicator that something was wrong.


Cars on a car carrier are “Lashed” or tied up using two methods.
1. Using straps around each wheel
2. Using straps hooked onto the front and rear towing hook.

If the ships flips over on to her side. The car is essentially hanging off from the front and rear towing hooks.
Imagine a car hanging from nothing other than the front and rear towing hooks for a few days! Even after the car has been put back onto her four wheels there is no 100% way of knowing how it has affected the structural integrity of the car. If the company is in doubt, they will just destroy the car instead of selling it to an unsuspecting customer.


Another thing. 1200 Jags is no big deal. The cost of the JCBs may be more than the Jags. Imagine the following for a boat-load of moving asset:-
3000 Audi (Mostly Q5, Q7 & A8) + 500 Bentley + 20 Lamborghini
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Old 8th January 2015, 09:18   #12
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Default Re: Cargo ship with 1400 Jaguars / Land Rovers runs aground

Quote:
Originally Posted by Capt. Shyam View Post
It basically depends on the location of the center of gravity of the ship. The lower the CG, the more stable the ship is.

In car carriers, the CG is very high from the keel. Normally ships have their fuel tanks at the bottom. So, consumption of the fuel from the bottom tanks makes the ship lighter at the bottom and more top heavy.

When the ship looses sufficient fuel to become too top heavy it may start to capsize as there is no Positive Stability.
Will there not be ballast tanks to compensate for this? As there are in tankers and bulk carriers?

Last edited by Gansan : 8th January 2015 at 09:25.
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Old 8th January 2015, 10:37   #13
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Default Re: Cargo ship with 1400 Jaguars / Land Rovers runs aground

Quote:
Cars on a car carrier are “Lashed” or tied up using two methods.
1. Using straps around each wheel
2. Using straps hooked onto the front and rear towing hook.

If the ships flips over on to her side. The car is essentially hanging off from the front and rear towing hooks.
Imagine a car hanging from nothing other than the front and rear towing hooks for a few days! Even after the car has been put back onto her four wheels there is no 100% way of knowing how it has affected the structural integrity of the car. If the company is in doubt, they will just destroy the car instead of selling it to an unsuspecting customer.
Usually most of the cars are lashed using straps around each wheel, as there is always the probability of listing.
Same thing is done even in the aircraft carriers where there is high tendency of roll.

Straps hooked onto front and rear towing hooks are generally used in cargo trucks where lateral movement is more prominent.

As for the structural integrity, I dont think there will be considerable damage to the structure even if they are hanging on straps because the forces will be well within the design load limts.
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Old 8th January 2015, 10:56   #14
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Default Re: Cargo ship with 1400 Jaguars / Land Rovers runs aground

Quote:
Originally Posted by moralfibre View Post
6-7 years ago, during ballast exchange operations another car carrier named Cougar Ace with a shipment of Mazdas began listing before entering US territorial waters.
This one instantly reminded me of the Cougar Ace! The Wired article had covered me in goosebumps when I had read it back then. The loss of the naval architect from the salvage team was really depressing. And Mazda scrapping all the 4000 odd cars onboard! Just look at the snaps:

Cargo ship with 1400 Jaguars / Land Rovers runs aground-1.jpg

Cargo ship with 1400 Jaguars / Land Rovers runs aground-2.jpg

Cargo ship with 1400 Jaguars / Land Rovers runs aground-3.jpg

Cargo ship with 1400 Jaguars / Land Rovers runs aground-4.jpg

Cargo ship with 1400 Jaguars / Land Rovers runs aground-5.jpg

Cargo ship with 1400 Jaguars / Land Rovers runs aground-6.jpg

Cargo ship with 1400 Jaguars / Land Rovers runs aground-7.jpg

Cargo ship with 1400 Jaguars / Land Rovers runs aground-8.jpg

Cargo ship with 1400 Jaguars / Land Rovers runs aground-9.jpg

Cargo ship with 1400 Jaguars / Land Rovers runs aground-10.jpg

Cargo ship with 1400 Jaguars / Land Rovers runs aground-11.jpg

Source: Car and Driver (Must read! Many more snaps as well!)

The cars may have been insured but all the efforts and time spent into building each one of them and rolling them off the assembly line just went in vain. I am wondering what happens to the Wraith onboard. Rolls Royce may not simply write off a handcrafted luxury car just like that!

EDIT: Here's an Imgur gallery of MV Tricolor, another car carrier that was involved in a collision during Dec. 2002 and was scrapped.

Last edited by Gannu_1 : 8th January 2015 at 11:00.
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Old 8th January 2015, 10:58   #15
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Default Re: Cargo ship with 1400 Jaguars / Land Rovers runs aground

Quote:
Originally Posted by Capt. Shyam View Post
Normally ships have their fuel tanks at the bottom. So, consumption of the fuel from the bottom tanks makes the ship lighter at the bottom and more top heavy.
Remember seeing some tank arrangements in ships compensating the weight loss by filling those tanks with water (couldn't recall the actual name) Is that nor available in case of car carriers?

Edit: Just noticed Gansan's post on the similar query.

Last edited by Mr.Boss : 8th January 2015 at 10:59.
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