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Old 5th October 2018, 13:24   #1
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Default The Missiles of India

Indian Air Force's Surface to Air Missiles (SAM)

S-400 Triumf

Earlier today India and Russia signed a Rs 40,000 crore deal for the acquisition of 5 Squadrons of the S-400 system. It is believed that the S-400 will be a force multiplier for India's air defence along both the Indo-China and Indo-Pak borders. Russia is also supplying the system to China. The US were expected to 'ban' the deal under their CAASTA law but have refrained from doing so keeping in mind their need to keep India in the game as a potential ally.

In terms of a qualitative and fundamental shift in air defence capability, in my opinion, this is one of the most significant steps taken after induction of the Sukhoi Su-30MKI 18 years ago and the deployment in c.1969 of the first SAM sites of the IAF along the western border.

The Missiles of India-m1-s400-missile-tel.jpg##
The Russian-built S-400 Triumf — NATO calls it SA-21 Growler — is considered by some Western sources as the most dangerous operationally deployed modern long-range surface-to-air missile (MLR SAM) system in the world It is considered to be much ahead of the Terminal High Altitude Area Defence system (THAAD) developed by the United States.

The Missiles of India-m2-s400-radar.jpg
Picture Source: Vitaly V. Kuzmin
The mobile S-400 system can engage all types of aerial targets including aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and ballistic and cruise missiles within a range of 400 km, at an altitude up to 30,000 metre s(100,00 feet). It can track 100 airborne targets, including super fighters such as the American built F-35, and engage six of them simultaneously.

The S-400 system, which can be deployed within five minutes, integrates a multifunction radar, autonomous detection and targeting systems, anti-aircraft missile systems, launchers, and a command & control centre, and is capable of firing three types of missiles to create a layered defence. It is responsible for defending Moscow.

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Photo Source: Rianovosti News Agency
It has been in service with the Russian Armed Forces since 2007. The S-400 uses four missiles to fill its performance envelope: the very-long-range 40N6 (400 km), the long-range 48N6 (250 km), the medium-range 9M96E2 (120 km) and the short-range 9M96E (40 km). The S-400 was described by The Economist in 2017 as "one of the best air-defence systems currently made".


The Missiles of India-m3-spyder.jpg##
The S-400 will augment the Israeli SPYDER missile system used for quick reaction short and medium range defence in the 0 to 50 kms range. The SPYDER system is both a point defence and an area defence system using two different missiles one guided by radar and the other passively by infra-red.


The Missiles of India-m4-akash_sam.jpg##
The IAF also deploys several Squadrons of the indigenous Akash SAM with its range of 30 km. Akash is guided to the incoming target by both radar and radio command.


The Missiles of India-m5-s125_neva.jpg##
The IAF also has in its service the Soviet era, but still effective SA-125 Pechora 15 kms range SAM.


The Missiles of India-m6-p25-kub-sa_6.jpg##
In addition the Indian Army deploys the K-12 (NATO name SA-6 Gainful)medium range SAMs under the Corps of Air Defence for protection of Army units in the field. These protect Army divisions out to 20 kms.


The Missiles of India-m7-sa8-gecko.jpg##
For its shorter range needs the Corps of Air Defence also deploys battalions of the 933K Osa (called SA-8 Gecko by NATO) for point defence of Army Divisions and key sites. The Osa is a quick reaction highly mobile system with a range between 8 to 15 kms. The Indian Navy used to deploy the sea-going version of the Osa. In a test the IN used its Osa missile to shoot down an incoming anti-ship missile. this was around the late 1970s and one of the early tests of using a missile to shoot down a missile.

The Missiles of India-master.jpg
Source: times of India
Snap shot of India's deal


Covered here are only the medium to long range SAMs. I have not touched upon the short range missiles.

News in Times of India
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/...w/66083773.cms

Source of pictures:
## - Wikipedia [their own work]

Last edited by V.Narayan : 5th October 2018 at 15:17.
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Old 5th October 2018, 15:18   #2
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Indian Surface-to-Surface Missiles [SSM]


One of our proud stories is the development of our surface to surface missiles and their successful operational deployment. Outside Russia and USA – the two space & missile giants, India is the only country to have done so without external support or technology – the other two are France and China. Some ask why do we need this. I am no defence expert but as a common citizen I would say we live in one of the three most dangerous neighbourhoods on the globe with not one but two belligerents nuclear neighbours across a 5000+ kms border. And as the Czechs and the Poles learnt in World War II you cannot depend on major powers to help you when a powerful opponent with nasty intent stands at your front door.

All Indian SSMs are mobile which add tremendously to the flexibility of use as well as keeping the enemy guessing at to their whereabouts. The multi-axle vehicles they are mounted on are pieces of automobile engineering. As many of you would know they are called Transporter-Erector-Launcher [TEL]

These SSMs were developed despite the total clamp down on technology imposed, in the 1980s, by USA, UK, France, Canada, Japan & Italy under an informal understanding styled the Missile Technology Control Regime. Nothing to be bothered about anymore. They did what they saw in their self interest and we did likewise.

Prithvi Short Range Ballistic Missile

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Photo Source: MilitaryToday
Prithvi Missile family: Pride of place goes to the Prithvi series which were the first successfully deployed surface to surface ballistic missiles designed, developed and commissioned by India. The Prithvi, a Short Range Ballistic Missile climbs far above the stratosphere and then re-enters the atmosphere at speeds in excess of Mach 5 in a super-fast ballistic trajectory to the target. As our first ballistic missile Prithvi is liquid fueled which means preparation for launch is time consuming. Later we developed solid fuel rocket motors which went into future missiles.

The Missiles of India-ss2-prithviiaf.deagel.com.jpg
Photo Source: Deagel.com The Prithvi can be fitted with both a conventional warhead and a nuclear one. The Prithvi comes in three types varying in range from 150 to 350 kms. The prototype flew in 1988 and the first operational deployment with the Army was in 1994. This short time compares favourably with the development time of the first ballistic missiles of France, USA and Russia. The men and the Tatra transporter give an indication of its 9-metre length.

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Photo Source: xairforces.net Dhanush is a sea-going version of the Prithvi-III which has been successfully test fired by the Indian Navy on at least 3 occasions. It is not known if it is deployed operationally or not.


Agni Medium Range Ballistic Missiles

The Missiles of India-ss4-agniiiagenciabrasil.jpeg
Photo Source:AgenciaBrasil
Agni-II Medium Range Ballistic Missile; nuclear armed. Forms a core of our nuclear deterrent for now. Range is between 2000 to 3500 kms depending on warhead weight and how the re-entry vehicle is configured. Each missile costs about INR 50 crores – we do not know if this includes the cost of the payload [euphemism for nuclear warhead].

The Missiles of India-ss5-agnii-pib.jpg
Photo Source: Press Information Bureau of India
Agni-I is the short range version of the Agni-II with a 700 kms range carrying a nuclear warhead. It is also more mobile than the Agni-II being shorter and lighter – 15-metres & 12 tonnes versus Agni -II at 20-metres & 16 tonnes. Agni-I is in service with the Indian Army.


The Missiles of India-ss6-agniv_mod.jpg
The Missiles of India-ss7-agniv_flight_testpib.jpg
Photo Source: Ministry of Defence, India

The real thing. Agni-V. Under development this is a 5000 kms range ballistic missile that will cover all of China from our North-East and it is believed carry multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicles (MIRV) warhead ie carry several warheads each of which can hit a different target. Agni-V has had 6 tests including some out to beyond 5000 kms into the South Indian Ocean. Agni-V reaches the top of its parabolic curve at 580 kms above earth after which the missile falls to earth onto its target. When deployed with the Indian Armed Forces it will complete our land based nuclear deterrent capability fully. Expected to deploy shortly.


K-Series Submarine Launched Ballistic Missiles

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Photo Source; Ministry of Defence, India K-15 Sagarika. Photo showing the first test launch from 30 metres (~100 feet) underwater from a submarine. The K stands for Kalam in honour of our late President APJ Kalam. Range, after being fired from underwater is ~750 kms. Navigation and guidance is more complex than from a land launched missile because of the underwater ‘cold’ launch and the constant motion of the submarine. An advanced version with a range of 3000 kms is under testing. It may be named the K-4


BrahMos Supersonic Cruise Missile

While a ballistic missile comes hurtling down on its target from literally beyond the atmosphere a cruise missile flies low-low-low hugging the ground or the sea surface to avoid detection. A ballistic missile is more suited for an area target while the cruise missile is suited for a precision strike of a building a ship or factory.

The Missiles of India-ss9-brahmos_launcher-wow.jpg
Photo Source: Wikipedia
The pride of our current suite of SSMs – the BrahMos a joint Indo-Russian product which is a development of a Russian cruise missile P-800 Oniks. BrahMos has new guidance systems and warheads including nuclear if needed. And BrahMos was designed to be launched from land based launchers, ships, aircrafts and submarines. The versions launched from land systems and ships are operational. The submarine and air versions are under development and tests

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Photo Source: Rediff.com
Brahmos firing from IN destroyer of Rajput class. The Brahmos flies to its target at Mach 2.8 to 3.0 skimming over the sea. The IN uses the ship launched version for both anti-ship and land attack purposes. The missile comes in riding 3 to 5 metres above the sea at a speed faster than a bullet thus making evasive measures, reaction times and electronic counter measures rather difficult for the adversary. Current versions have a range of 290 kms. Upgraded versions are said to go out to 450 kms.

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Photo Source: PressTV
Suknoi Su-30MKI multi-role combat aircraft dropping the air launched Brahmos on its test flight


Video showing first test launch of air launched prototype of BrahMos from a Sukhoi Su-30MKI


Pinaka Multi-Barrel Rocket Launcher

The Missiles of India-ss13pinakawow.jpg
Picture Source: Wikipedia
While not strictly a guided missile the Pinaka rocket deserves a mention here as one of the successful weapons developed by DRDO. Each unguided rocket carries a 100 kgs warhead out to 40,000 metres with frightening accuracy. The 12 rockets can be fired in a ripple or a salvo. A battery of 6 launchers can lay flat an area of roughly 1 square km. Pinaka II with a range of 75 kms is under testing. The warhead is always conventional.

Not covered here are experimental missiles, those under development or those that were used as prototypes.

Last edited by Aditya : 8th October 2018 at 07:13.
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Old 5th October 2018, 15:21   #3
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Thread moved from the Assembly Line. Thanks for sharing.
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Old 5th October 2018, 17:38   #4
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Default re: The Missiles of India

Dear V.Narayan Sir,


30 years back I used to eagerly wait for monthly subscribed comics to arrive and now I cross my finger when there will be a new article from you on Indian military establishment . I still doubt which I wait for more eagerly, your thread or GOT. Please sir, keep our mortal soul enlightened with plethora of knowledge that keeps flowing with each of your posts.


If you kindly help me understand, if we are getting the system similar to the Chinese? Why are we paying double to what they have paid ($5.4 billion for 5 vs $3 billion for 6)? I understand a lot goes behind a military deal of such measure and Chinese are at different level of relationship with the Russians than us, but keeps me wondering why double of the already published price.
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Old 5th October 2018, 18:27   #5
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Default Re: The Missiles of India

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Originally Posted by PetrolRider View Post
I still doubt which I wait for more eagerly, your thread or GOT.
What is GOT?
Quote:
Please sir, keep our mortal soul enlightened with plethora of knowledge that keeps flowing with each of your posts.
Thank you for your compliment. I do intend over the year ahead to write one thread on the Naval war of 1971 and expand this thread to cover Indian surface-to-surface missiles. My only challenge is how to make them interesting enough without making the article so long and detailed that folks start skipping it.


Quote:
If you kindly help me understand, if we are getting the system similar to the Chinese? Why are we paying double to what they have paid ($5.4 billion for 5 vs $3 billion for 6)? I understand a lot goes behind a military deal of such measure and Chinese are at different level of relationship with the Russians than us, but keeps me wondering why double of the already published price.
Great question and one which would be on many minds. Let me try and answer:
  • First rule about public information on cost of defence deals is that the data is well camouflaged and you never know what it contains or does not contain. Though journalists think they know but they don't.
  • The S-400 is not one system but 4 missile systems with a plethora of radars, guiding systems, command & control systems all rolled into one title, S-400 Triumf, for marketing purposes. We do not know what the Chinese got - all 4 missiles or only 3. Also we do not know what all India is getting in terms of integration with SPYDER, Akash, current radar chain, spares, life time support etc.
  • Further we are talking of 5 squadrons and the Chinese of [I think] 6 battalions - but we don't know how many launcher units makes a squadron or a battalion.
  • And finally we don't know how many missiles.
Hence the two prices [which in the first place are unlikely to be accurate] are not apples to apples. Hope this helps.
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Old 5th October 2018, 18:33   #6
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Quote:
Originally Posted by V.Narayan View Post

Source of pictures:
## - Wikipedia [their own work]

Besides all the above, India also has a good quantity of MANPADs or Man Portable Air Defense Systems. These are handy shoulder fired missiles for point defense. Across globe the good ones carry a dangerous reputation. In Kargil war some of our air losses were attributed to these MANPADs fired by enemies possibly American Stinger or their reverse engineered local version called as Anza.

India has Russian version of these MANPADs called as IGLA or specifically IGLA SA 18.

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Old 5th October 2018, 20:48   #7
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Another great post from you sir.
What happened to our ballistic missile shield? if developed completely i guess it would have fulfilled the medium to ultra long range cover pretty well. Also we have the aakash, which though indiginous but still lacks the bite and agility of other contemporary ones like the Baraks/ASpides etc. We've got to have a more portable MRSAM to protect our long range systems and some modern point defense ones. The bofors and shilka's won't cut it anymore. Our air defense needs new weapons period, more so with the diminishing aircraft strengths, but again we shouldn't spend fortunes getting them from others at hefty premiums.
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Old 5th October 2018, 21:09   #8
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Let me rate it 5 star first, will start reading later! Coming from you sir, it cannot be uninteresting

Also, could not help but notice 'RAFAEL' written on the truck window in the 4th picture. And let me tell you I was just scrolling through the page. So much for brand recognition

Last edited by AKTRACK : 5th October 2018 at 21:14. Reason: grammar correction
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Old 5th October 2018, 23:07   #9
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Another great post from you sir.
What happened to our ballistic missile shield? if developed completely i guess it would have fulfilled the medium to ultra long range cover pretty well. .
I am a keen observer and a lurker of defence forums and from what I read the BMD project is at a much advanced stage with a series of successful developmental trials.

But the acquisition of the S-400 system is a game changer in the current scenario. And as V.Narayan sir said it is the most significant and noteworthy buy after the Sukhois. It gives a enviable advantage by achieving a full air superiority if strategically placed close to the borders. No enemy aircraft will be safe if airborne within its advertised 400km range. Besides a delivery schedule starting in the next 2 years sounds good as well, in a field where the defence preparedness is always bogged down by delays. The Rafale + Meteor combination is a good strategic buy as well if not for the controversies surrounding it. The meteor is supposed to be the best BVR missile there is today and it does provide an edge.

Specific to the Akash missile system, it has earned praises from its end users and the public sector units have a order backlog to equip the regiments coming up while more orders are on the anvil.

Unlike the aviation tech industry, missile technology has seen a continuous improvement in our country. The Nag man portable anti tank missile has been tested for its full range recently. The Astra BVR A2A missile has completed its development trials and is on course for series production. The Akash NG seems promising. We have the Pinaka guided rocket program getting to closure as well. And for everything else we have the Brahmos. A deadly combination is in the making when a smaller version of it makes its way to the belly of a Sukhoi 30 MKI.

All said and done, with a little collaboration from our armed forces we can soon become self sufficient in the defence equipment area. Till then well planned buys like the S-400, SU 30 MKIs, Rafales will see us through. Somewhere in the mid 80s the government botched up the purchase of fighters for the air force in a knee jerk reaction to our Neighbor acquiring F-16s. We have never been able to clear the shortage since.

Thank you V.Narayan Sir for putting up this thread.
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Old 6th October 2018, 10:16   #10
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As usual, another meticulously crafted thread, V.Narayan

I have what could possibly be a very stupid question, but I have to ask. In a full scale theater of war, when these systems are actively engaging the enemy, how does one reload them after they use their payload? Do they have to return to a base of some sort where new missiles are loaded or can they be equipped right there on the battlefield itself?

As an aside, I recently finished watching Ken Burns' documentary on the American Civil War. It is unbelievable how much the weapons of war have changed the very way in which they are fought. It is not hard to imagine 200 years into the future, the 'solider' might very well be a group of men and woman at the controls of an AI system (I don't think they will be called computers anymore!) hundreds of kilometers from the actual battlefield, controlling drones, andriod bots and whatnot!
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Old 6th October 2018, 10:17   #11
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Quote:
Originally Posted by PetrolRider View Post
If you kindly help me understand, if we are getting the system similar to the Chinese? Why are we paying double to what they have paid ($5.4 billion for 5 vs $3 billion for 6)?
Quote:
Originally Posted by V.Narayan View Post
all 4 missiles or only 3.
China doesn't get 40N6 400 km range missile with their S-400. That's because 40N6 was still under development when the deal was struck. Actually, Russians completed testing of 40N6 just a couple of months back.

https://www.janes.com/article/79084/...r-service-soon

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Old 6th October 2018, 10:53   #12
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Quote:
Originally Posted by V.Narayan View Post
[center]Indian Air Force's Surface to Air Missiles (SAM)
Great article sir.

Quote:
Originally Posted by V.Narayan View Post
In terms of a qualitative and fundamental shift in air defence capability, in my opinion, this is one of the most significant steps taken after induction of the Sukhoi Su-30MKI 18 years ago and the deployment in c.1969 of the first SAM sites of the IAF along the western border.
Couldn't agree with you more. The Flanker is to the IAF what the MiG-21 was in the early 70s and 80s, only far more punchy and capable.

Quote:
Originally Posted by V.Narayan View Post
The IAF also has in its service the Soviet era, but still effective SA-125 Pechora 15 kms range SAM.
The SA-3 has this "Peecha Na Chora" tagline with the IAF SAM Squadrons.
The Missiles of India-20626860_10212702804059324_3928635689243723670_o.jpg

Quote:
Originally Posted by vikasshu View Post
Besides all the above, India also has a good quantity of MANPADs or Man Portable Air Defense Systems. These are handy shoulder fired missiles for point defense. Across globe the good ones carry a dangerous reputation. In Kargil war some of our air losses were attributed to these MANPADs fired by enemies possibly American Stinger or their reverse engineered local version called as Anza.
The Indian Army has fired Iglas in anger as well. It was an Igla fired by the Indian Army during the Siachen conflict that brought down by a Pakistani Army helicopter in the early 90s(during one of their numerous failed attempts to re-take the posts in Siachen)

Last edited by skanchan95 : 6th October 2018 at 10:57.
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Old 6th October 2018, 15:15   #13
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Quote:
Originally Posted by V.Narayan View Post
What is GOT?
Thank you for your compliment. I do intend over the year ahead to write one thread on the Naval war of 1971 and expand this thread to cover Indian surface-to-surface missiles. My only challenge is how to make them interesting enough without making the article so long and detailed that folks start skipping it.
My apologies to you and to forum moderators also for using an unapproved abbreviation in a post. What I meant is a popular television series going by the name Game of thrones, aka GOT. Sorry for this confusion. Point is, your posts and threads come with enough glue to fix me to them permanently.
By the way sir, I would doubt anyone in team-bhp would ever find your posts too long to skip. Please sir, we dare you to bore us .

Quote:
Originally Posted by smartcat View Post
China doesn't get 40N6 400 km range missile with their S-400.
Now, this makes sense. Thank you smartcat for this very important piece of information.

Last edited by GTO : 7th October 2018 at 11:09. Reason: typo
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Old 6th October 2018, 16:12   #14
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I think the specs for the altitude (30 KM / 10k Feet) is wrong. It will be more like 100k feet altitude.
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Old 6th October 2018, 19:43   #15
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Great thread, and makes for interesting reading.

Quote:
Originally Posted by V.Narayan View Post
Navigation and guidance is more complex than from a land launched missile because of the underwater ‘cold’ launch and the constant motion of the submarine.
I get how navigation and guidance would be more complex due to the motion of the submarine, similar to TELs and train-based launchers.

What I don't get is why a cold launch adds to the complexity of navigation and guidance. Isn't the cold launch just to avoid the need for firing up the rocket motor in the submarine's launch tube (since the thermal energy contained in that propellant can breach the hull if the launch goes awry), and instead just jettison the missile outside the tube, to let it safely fire up away from the submarine?

True that the inertial fix from the sub would be a few hundred feet wrong, but that's something that will be accounted for once the missile starts navigating by itself, wouldn't it?
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