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Old 12th January 2019, 16:52   #1
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Default Lithium Air Batteries with "2D materials" could offer 800 km range

Lithium Air Batteries with "2D materials" could offer 800 km range-screenshot_20190112143727_youtube.jpg


Electric cars may clock up to 800 km on single charge !

WASHINGTON: Scientists say they have developed several two-dimensional (2D) materials which may enable electric vehicles to clock up to 800 kilometres on a single charge.

Quote:
Lithium-air batteries, which are still in the experimental stages of development, can store 10 times more energy than currently used lithium-ion batteries, and they are much lighter, said researchers from the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC).

Lithium-air batteries could be even more efficient and provide more charge with the incorporation of advanced catalysts made from two-dimensional materials, they said.

In the research published in ‘Advanced Materials’, researchers synthesised several 2D materials that can serve as catalysts. A number of their 2D materials, when incorporated into experimental lithium-air batteries as the catalyst, enabled the battery to hold up to 10 times more energy than lithium-air batteries containing traditional catalysts.
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https://Youtu.be/AGy3BddUvC8

Batteries of the Future

Lithium Air Batteries with "2D materials" could offer 800 km range-screenshot_20190112160722_chrome.jpg

According to University Of Illinois At Chicago researchers, lithium-air batteries could be even more efficient and provide more charge with the incorporation of advanced catalysts made from two-dimensional materials.

Catalysts help increase the rate of chemical reactions inside batteries, and depending on the type of material from which the catalyst is made, they can help significantly boost the ability of the battery to hold and provide energy.

“We are going to need very-high-energy-density batteries to power new advanced technologies that are incorporated into phones, laptops and especially electric vehicles,” said researcher Amin Salehi-Khojin.

His team synthesised several 2D materials that can serve as catalysts. A number of their 2D materials, when incorporated into experimental lithium-air batteries as the catalyst, enabled the battery to hold up to 10 times more energy than lithium-air batteries containing traditional catalysts.

“Currently, electric vehicles average about 100 miles per charge, but with the incorporation of 2D catalysts into lithium-air batteries, we could provide closer to 400 to 500 miles per charge, which would be a real game-changer,” Salehi-Khojin said. “This would be a huge breakthrough in energy storage.”

15 different types of 2D transition metal dichalcogenides or TMDCs were synthesised. TMDCs are unique compounds because they have high electronic conductivity and fast electron transfer that can be used to participate in reactions with other materials, such as the reactions that take place inside batteries during charging and discharging.

The investigators experimentally studied the performance of 15 TMDCs as catalysts in an electrochemical system mimicking a lithium-air battery.

“In their 2D form, these TMDCs have much better electronic properties and greater reactive surface area to participate in electrochemical reactions within a battery while their structure remains stable,” said Leily Majidi first author of the paper.

“Reaction rates are much higher with these materials compared to conventional catalysts used such as gold or platinum.”

One of the reasons the 2D TDMCs performed so well is because they help speed both charging and discharging reactions occurring in lithium-air batteries.

“This would be what is known as bi-functionality of the catalyst,” Salehi-Khojin said.

The 2D materials also synergise with the electrolyte – the material through which ions move during charge and discharge.

“The 2D TDMCs and the ionic liquid electrolyte that we used acts as a co-catalyst system that helps the electrons transfer faster, leading to faster charges and more efficient storage and discharge of energy,” he said.

“These new materials represent a new avenue that can take batteries to the next level; we just need to develop ways to produce and tune them more efficiently and in larger scales.”
Source




Lithium-Air: A Battery Breakthrough Explained


Quote:

In the quest for smaller, longer-lasting, more powerful batteries, scientists have tried many alternative approaches to battery chemistry. One may have just produced the breakthrough we’re waiting for.

The urban legend is that there was a small leak in a battery cell that chemist K M Abraham was testing in his laboratory in 1995, which provided the cell with a far higher energy content than expected. Rather than try to fix the leak, Abraham investigated and discovered the first rechargeable lithium-air (Li-air) battery. So far this discovery hasn’t led to any technically viable products, but a paper published in Science from a University of Cambridge research group may be about to change that.

In 2008, Tesla amazed industry watchers with its bold, electric Roadster car that ran on off-the-shelf lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, the sort that power everything from smartphones to laptops to cameras and toys. Since then, not only has the market for electric vehicles quickly grown, but so has the average range of the batteries that power them. However that growth needs to accelerate: from 1994 it took 20 years to triple the energy content of a typical Li-ion battery.

The new research, led by professors Gunwoo Kim and Clare Grey, experimented with Li-air cells that use only an electron conductor, such as lightweight, porous carbon, instead of a metal-oxide typically used in a Li-ion battery. Practically speaking, this saves a lot of weight, but brings its own difficulties.

How Lithium-Air Batteries Work

A Li-air cell creates voltage from the availability of oxygen molecules (O2) at the positive electrode. O2 reacts with the positively charged lithium ions to form lithium peroxide (Li2O2) and generate electric energy. Electrons are drawn out of the electrode and such a battery is empty (discharged) if no more Li2O2 can be formed.


However, Li2O2 is a very bad electron conductor. If deposits of Li2O2 grow on the electrode surface that supplies the electrons for the reaction, it dampens and eventually kills off the reaction, and therefore the battery’s power. This problem can be overcome if the reaction product (lithium peroxide in this case) is stored close to the electrode but does not coat it.

The Cambridge researchers found a recipe that does exactly that – using a standard electrolyte mixture and adding lithium iodide (LI) as an additive. The team’s experiment also include a rather spongy, fluffy electrode made of many thin layers of graphene filled with large pores. The last important ingredient is a small amount of water.

With this combination of chemicals, the reaction as the battery discharges does not form the Li2O2 that would gunge up the electrode’s conducting surface (see image below, left hand side). Instead it incorporates hydrogen stripped from the water (H2O) to form lithium hydroxide (LiOH) crystals. These crystals fill the size of the pores in the fluffy carbon electrode, but crucially they don’t coat and block the vital carbon surface that is generating the supply of voltage (right hand side). So the presence of lithium iodide as “facilitator” (though its exact role is not yet clear) and water as co-reactant in the process boosts the Li-air battery’s capacity.

How Will Li-Air Change Things?

This process which ensures the electrode surface is kept clear is essential to boost battery capacity. However, the drawback is that the same lack of electrical contact between the electrode and the discharge product that boosts its capacity should in principle make it difficult to recharge.

Again, it turns out the lithium iodide additive is the missing ingredient needed: at the electrode, negatively charged iodide ions are converted into I3 (triiodide) ions (see picture, right-hand side). These combine with the LiOH crystals and dissolve, allowing for a complete recharge by clearing the pores.


In fact this mechanism is even more effective than the recharge of Li2O2 attached to the electrode surface. Since the electrons do not need to travel through a Li2O2 layer, less voltage is required to recharge a Li-air battery with the iodine additive than without it. So less energy is needed to recharge the battery, which would make an electric car running on such a Li-air battery more energy efficient. The study’s authors present data that are approaching an energy efficiency of around 90% – which brings this new battery technology close to that of conventional Li-ion batteries.

Their findings reveal a promising way forward for Li-air technology, at a time when many other research groups have given up. As more researchers return to the subject following this breakthrough, perhaps a commercial Li-air battery will finally become reality.
Source




And Now there is talk of Zinc Air Batteries to replace Lithium

Patrick Soon-Shiong on 'holy grail' zinc-air battery

Patrick Soon-Shiong, NantKwest CEO, chairman of NantEnergy and Los Angeles Times owner, discusses NantEnergy's new zinc-air rechargeable battery system that he hopes will eventually replace the lithium battery.


These Battery developments will influence the automotive scene worldwide.
Just like how the cellphone/mobile revolution took the Indian market by storm, Similarly the Electric Car revolution could influence the Indian Market on an unprecedented scale and much sooner than most people will anticipate.
Although it will depend how soon the Indian Govt. and Major Car manufacturers develop the basic infrastructure needed for Fast charging.

Last edited by JS Kwt : 12th January 2019 at 17:14.
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Old 17th January 2019, 18:16   #2
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Default Re: Lithium Air Batteries with "2D materials" could offer 800 km range


Battery makers race to secure Australian lithium supply

Quote:

Western Australia accounts for around half of global lithium production, which Macquarie expects will jump by 52 percent to 431,000 tonnes of lithium equivalent in 2019, rising to 500,000 tonnes by 2020.
New mines have sprung up in the past 18 months to meet an expected demand boom from makers of rechargeable batteries for everything from mobile phones to electric cars.
Battery behemoths Ganfeng Lithium and Albemarle, and carmakers like Tesla have snapped up Australian lithium supply over the past year, with one miner this week saying that nearly all of the country's planned production has now been spoken for.
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Global Lithium Air Batteries Market Overview:

Quote:

According to market analysts, Global Lithium Air Batteries Market is projected to grow at a high CAGR value from 2019 to 2022.

The growth in the global lithium air batteries market can be attributed to the various technological developments undertaken by battery manufacturers across the world. Moreover, the increasing penetration in advanced industrial applications such as drones and robotics, etc. on account of falling prices of lithium batteries is further anticipated to boost the Global Lithium Air Battery Market.

Regionally, North America and Europe are anticipated to be the largest markets for lithium-air batteries. Adoption of electric vehicles in countries such as the U.S., Germany, and France is projected to create high demand for lithium-air batteries.
Furthermore, Asia Pacific is a developing market for lithium-air batteries due to the well-established manufacturing and automotive industries in the countries such as China, India.
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Old 18th January 2019, 00:17   #3
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Default Re: Lithium Air Batteries with "2D materials" could offer 800 km range


PM Modi Visits Maruti Suzuki's Pavilion At The 2019 Vibrant Gujarat Exhibition
Lithium Air Batteries with "2D materials" could offer 800 km range-screenshot_20190118003721_twitter.jpg

Lithium Air Batteries with "2D materials" could offer 800 km range-screenshot_20190118003705_twitter.jpg
Maruti Suzuki's MD, Kenichi Ayukawa and Toshihiro Suzuki, President, Suzuki explain the model To PM Modi
Quote:

Highlights

PM Modi looked into the model of the upcoming lithium-ion battery plant.
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Old 19th January 2019, 06:59   #4
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Default Re: Lithium Air Batteries with "2D materials" could offer 800 km range


Tata group plans to invest in lithium ion battery manufacturing in Gujarat

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Tata group Chairman N Chandrasekaran Friday said the conglomerate plans to invest in lithium ion battery manufacturing in Gujarat. Speaking here at the Vibrant Gujarat Global Summit, he said group firm Tata Chemicals is also looking to enhance its soda ash capacity to one million tonnes annually.

Tata Motors' plant at Sanand rolls out Tigor electric car besides manufacturing other models such as hatchback Tiago, compact sedan Tigor and Nano.

"We want to make further investments, not only in manufacturing electric vehicles, but also in lithium ion battery projects here," Chandrasekaran added.
Source


Tata Motors showcases EV products at Vibrant Gujarat Summit

Lithium Air Batteries with "2D materials" could offer 800 km range-screenshot_20190119072255_chrome.jpg
Quote:

Tata Motors on Friday showcased its Tigor EV and 9m Ultra Electric Bus in ninth edition of Vibrant Gujarat Summit.

Shailesh Chandra, President- Electric Mobility Business & Corporate Strategy, Tata Motors said, “With Government’s continued thrust on accelerated adoption of e-mobility through enabling policies, continued reduction in battery prices and other critical components, we clearly see a sharp rise in demand for electric vehicles in the coming years.”

“We have already developed cars, buses and last mile commercial vehicles, which have been showcased at various events in the past.”

Tigor EV is a full electric, zero emission compact sedan marks the beginning of Tata Motor’s journey to boost e-mobility.
Tata Ultra 9 Meter Electric Bus is the first full electric drivetrain and modern solution for Urban Transport requirements.
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Old 19th January 2019, 11:37   #5
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BHEL, Libcoin to build India's first lithium-ion battery plant: Govt

Quote:

New Delhi: State-run BHEL and Libcoin are in talks to form a consortium to initially build a 1GWh lithium-ion battery plant in India, the government said Friday. The plant's capacity will be scaled up to 30GWh in due course.

"BHEL will be sending a team of senior officers for study of the facilities, R&D infrastructure and other techno-commercial issues soon. Based upon the evaluation and recommendations of the team, further process towards formation of joint venture will be carried forward," the heavy industries and public enterprises ministry said in a statement.

"This project also includes 'Made by India, for India', with focus on core-cost components manufactured domestically. It will also create integrated manufacturing ecosystem resulting in self-reliance and lower cost," the statement issued by the Heavy Industries Ministry said.

A holistic view of the supply chain in combination with cutting edge digital technologies to replace high capex and high opex processes will be the highlight of the project.
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Old 23rd January 2019, 01:27   #6
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Default Re: Lithium Air Batteries with "2D materials" could offer 800 km range

TOYOTA - PANASONIC
announce venture for green auto batteries


TOKYO: Toyota Motor Corp. and Panasonic Corp. are setting up a joint venture to research, manufacture and sell batteries for ecological autos, an increasingly lucrative sector amid concerns about global warming.

Lithium Air Batteries with "2D materials" could offer 800 km range-screenshot_20190123015353_chrome.jpg

Quote:

The Japanese automaker and the Japanese electronics maker said in a joint statement Tuesday that Toyota will take a 51 percent stake and Panasonic 49 percent in the joint venture, which is to be running by the end of 2020.

The companies have been studying working together on batteries since 2017. They did not say how much would be invested in the joint venture.

Panasonic will transfer equipment, assets and workers from its plants in Japan and China to the joint venture, which will employ 3,500 workers from both companies.
Separately, Panasonic already has invested in a battery factory with U.S. electric car maker Tesla Inc.

Toyota, Japan's No. 1 automaker, is thought to have fallen behind rival Nissan Motor Co. in pioneering electric vehicles, and has been trying to catch up in recent years.

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Old 9th February 2019, 21:49   #7
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Default Re: Lithium Air Batteries with "2D materials" could offer 800 km range

A nice read with an indian perspective


A New World Order?
Once the cost of the battery comes down, the automobile industry will change tack with lightning speed.

Lithium Air Batteries with "2D materials" could offer 800 km range-screenshot_20190209221428_chrome.jpg

Author
Shapur Kotwal talks about how the advent of electric cars will affect the Indian market and major carmakers worldwide.


Quote:
Unless you’ve been hiding under a rock, you’ll have noticed that the automotive landscape is fast changing.
What I’m talking about here, of course, is the electrification of the car.

We in India may be insulated for a bit. We are still a developing country and don’t quite have the purchasing power to go all electric. And with affordable electric cars not expected to hit our showroom for at least a decade, the status quo in India is likely to carry on for a bit longer.

The ones who will be affected the most when the electrics goes mainstream will be the Japanese. Currently masters of piston engine tech.
And even back home, a large part of Maruti’s and Toyota’s success is due to the bulletproof reliability and efficiency of their engines. This is why it is the Japanese who are pushing hybrids so hard here. It really is simple; the greater the mechanical complexity the greater the advantage they hold. It’s another matter entirely that hybrids are exactly what we in India currently require.

And let’s not forget, once the car industry goes all electric, somewhere in the distant future, it will sort of level out the playing field.
What would you drive if both were equally reliable, a Toyota or an Alfa Romeo? And what if Volkswagens were as problem-free and as affordable as Hondas?

Electric cars will also play right into the hands of low-cost operators, think Chinese carmakers.

And who’s to say Tata and Mahindra won’t be big beneficiaries as well?
Mahindra has a massive headstart with its racing exploits and Reva. And let’s not forget Tata, with TCS, has immense engineering depth.
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Old 10th February 2019, 11:10   #8
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Default Re: Lithium Air Batteries with "2D materials" could offer 800 km range

Assume we succeed in developing these Li-Air batteries. Even then it may be 3-5 years before we see them in commercial production. And another year or two before we see them in cars. So we are looking at a lead time of six to seven years.
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Old 21st March 2019, 23:00   #9
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Volkswagen Group, Sweden's Northvolt and partners
set up European Battery Union consortium

The Volkswagen Group and other European partners are joining forces to form the European Battery Union (EBU) with a view to forging ahead with battery research throughout Europe. The new consortium is to be led by the Volkswagen Group and the Swedish battery producer Northvolt.

Partners from research and industry in seven EU member states are joining forces in the European Battery Union consortium. The comprehensive research collaboration will range from raw material production, to cell technology and cell production processes and through to recycling. The research activities will also focus on the development and engineering of plant technologies allowing sustainable, climate friendly and competitive battery cell production in the European Union.

All the partners will step up their investments as a result of the planned additional research activities. These investments could receive financial support from funding announced by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy.

https://t.co/Ic3w1kBloC
https://t.co/pJeaHqJlqV
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