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Old 27th May 2016, 15:24   #1
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Default Project ST: Ford Fiesta 1.6 Duratec

My story starts in 1971 with my earliest memories as a child of the black outs that were implemented in the city during the 1971 Indo-Pak war. These memories also include a fascination for all mechanical things that moved. I come from a family of engineers and doctors. My dad had Bachelors in Electrical and a Masters in Automobile. He worked for a multinational, which at the time was the free world’s largest forging company, Wyman-Gordon. In India, Wyman-Gordon manufactured crankshafts, camshafts and connecting rods for Telco, Mahindra, Ashok Leyland, Hindustan Motors and Primer Auto.

I still recall vividly one of the stories he used to narrate. Just before the war started, the Indian Army had only 2 tank towing bars in its inventory. Suddenly, the Indian Army required more tank towing bars to assists in recovery of damaged tanks from the war front. Designs of the towing bar were rushed to Wyman-Gordon and the company was asked to press all its resources to make the tow bars. While the work may be simple for this day and age, it was complicated by the fact that even nuts and bolts of required tensile strength were not available in the country nor was there capability to make them. Dad and his team worked round the clock to create the tow bars. They considered the project to be of national importance and put all their efforts into it. The team did not go home for days. They literally camped and lived in the factory at Thane and worked 24/7 to get the tow bar production line ready. When the war started, the tow bar line was in full swing making 2 tow bars a day which were airlifted to Delhi on a daily basis and rushed to the war front and pressed into service. So it’s ironic that an Indian subsidiary of an American company helped in the war effort in a war where America had a largely anti Indian stance.

There are numerous other fascinating stories like how he went to Russia to buy the largest forging hammer that this country had ever seen and the challenges faced in shipping the hammer to the Thane factory. From no crane at Bombay Port capable of lifting the hammer out of the ship (it was eventually taken to Calcutta port) to not having a rail carriage capable enough of moving it overland to Mumbai (only 2 carriages capable existed in the country with the Department of Atomic Energy). The road trip from Bombay to Thane was another challenge. The challenges of installing the hammer also make for a fascinating story in human ingenuity (Ice was used to move the hammer on to its foundation).

I grew up in this fascinating world of engineering challenges on one side and the world of medicine on the other (my mom is a doctor). For a 3 year old these stories were larger than life. On holidays Dad would take me to the factory or to meet some of the vendors or clients. He would always take time to explain what was happening on the floor shop. How things worked, what each part did. For example, I recall the very first time I saw a Tata tipper truck unloading, I was so fascinated that I could not take my eyes off it. He noticed it and took my hand and walked over to truck. After a short discussion with the driver of the truck, put me in the cabin and got on to the driver’s seat and demonstrated how the tipper works.

There is also the story of how as student of Automobile engineering he decided that he must learn how to drive all types of vehicles. He narrated the story of how when he went for his heavy vehicle test, a Parsi gentleman who was the RTO officer taking the test asked him why did he want to learn to drive a truck as he did not seem to be type that regularly took the test. When dad explained the reasons behind wanting to learn how to drive heavy vehicles, the gentleman was so appreciative that he kept in touch with dad and followed up with him about his progress as a student.

With crates full of toys, mostly cars, trucks, airplanes, he also introduced me to my first Meccano building set. This started a lifelong hobby of scale modeling that I still find immensely rewarding. He taught me to appreciate great engineering designs and the thinking behind the designs. A natural extension of the same was love for cars and bikes. From a very early age cars and bikes became an integral part of life. Words like crankshaft, head, valves, carburetors were part of daily life. This also made me a tinkering guy. Any new toy that my dad bought me was taken apart within a few hours of being given to me. The moment I learnt how to use a screwdriver, I started looking for things to unscrew. Nothing was safe in the house; I would drive my mom up the wall, whereas my dad would very patiently explain how things worked.

Fast forward to my teens and like a typical teenager I was fascinated with cars and bikes. Stealing a ride or a drive in friends, uncles and dad’s cars and bikes were some of the highlights of the days. After the ride or drive there was the usual discussion with friends about them. This gradually escalated to sneaking out late in the night with car or bike keys, pushing the car or bike out of the building premises before starting it to go for joy rides. I know it was wrong, but we didn’t know any better at that time.

Like most teenagers I pestered him for a bike. He told me that he would give me a job and I could get a bike for the amount that I earn at the end of 2 years and if there was a shortfall he would extend a loan to me at the time of buying the bike.

At the age of 15 I started working in my dad’s business on a monthly stipend. The lessons he taught me stood by me during darkest hours and most trying times. At the age of 17, nearly 18, I bought my first bike, a Yamaha RX 100. He taught me to work with my hands and the satisfaction one gets from the love of labour. He also taught me that no work is too small as long as it’s a honest day’s work.

This bike started a long loving relationship with bikes that has lasted till date. 2 stroke bikes provided me with a cheap option to tinker around with the bikes. I loved tinkering around with bikes. Though there were couple of cars at home, I did not pay much attention to them other than using them occasionally. For most parts I stuck to bikes. My love to tinker around with all things mechanical started my journey as a hardcore ‘performance’ and ‘trick out’ junkie. My dad and his friends from the automobile industry were the source of guidance for all the performance changes made to my bikes. In those days there was no Internet and process of gaining knowledge was an asymmetric process.

The love for bikes and cars formed a life long bond between father and son. We would sit and discuss for hours together. In the end, even when he was very ill and in the hospital bed he would ask me the status of my current project and when he would get to see it.

I got married and moved to Dubai in the 90s and I got my first car, a Mercury Sable. A 3L V6 engine with American grunt, I instantly fell in love with the car. I covered over 1,00,000 kms in a year with nothing other than regular services and a set of tyre change. For me the car was a revelation and made me a life long fan of Ford.

I came back in the early 2000s and after couple of years to settle down I bought my very first car, a Ford Ikon 1.3 Rocam (didn’t have money for 1.6L). Unfortunately, just a week after taking delivery of the car, during the floods of 26th July 2005 the car was completely submerged in water. It had clocked only 300 kms.

A few months later Ford introduced the new Fiesta with Duratec engine. I started planning to replace the Ikon. It took me about a year to finally replace the Ikon with a Ford 1.4 L Duratec. The car was for my wife as I continued to use my bikes for daily use. The car gave us great service and after 4 years and 30,000 kms we decided to replace it. We once again selected a Ford Fiesta. This time it was a 1.6L Duratec. My wife was of the opinion that we should keep the old car. However, I was not too keen as the car had limited potential and I did not want to drive the car in stock condition. So a car in very good condition was disposed off for just 2,25,000/-.

After we got the 1.6 Duratec, I was itching to start tinkering around with the car. However, my wife had a strict ‘do not touch my car’ policy. She would only allow me to touch the car after I would get another one for her. So started a 4-year waiting and plotting period wherein I would often play out in my mind what I would do with the car once I get my hands on it.

9 months back, we started planning for new car. After looking high and low for a car that was not a Ford, my wife once again zeroed in on the face lifted 2014 Ford Fiesta 1.5L TDCi. Hence once again a Ford joined the family. Once again my wife insisted that we keep the old car and I insisted that I be allowed to tinker around with the car to make it mine. Finally after a lot of to and fro, we agreed to amount I would be allowed to spend on the car.

Once the decision to keep the car and tinker around it was made, it was now time to plan for the changes. I approached Vikram and Vijay of Motozone Performance to work on build. My bikes are tricked out at Motozone Performance and I have always been satisfied with their quality of work. Planning for the project started in earnest and tentative timelines were made. My dad was very enthusiastic participant in the process. Unfortunately, his health deteriorated and he had to be hospitalized. Even when he was hospitalized he wanted regular updates on what was happening. There was twinkle in his eyes when spoke about the highly anticipated new car coming home and the new build.

Sadly, he passed away before work started on the project. His passing away left a huge void in my life and almost broke me. I lost interest in the car and was depressed. At that time my wife counseled me to go ahead with the build. She insisted that I needed it as therapy and will feel much better after I have completed it.

So the 1st phase of the project was planned and parts ordered.

The 1st Phase consisted of:

1. Flowed Cylinder Head (would be flow bench tested before and after changes).
2. PiperCams Stage 1 cams.
3. Custom made Fuel Maps with ECU rewrite (all data including flow bench results would be sent to U.K. for fuel maps).
4. Custom made 4-2-1 exhaust system (304 SS).
5. Pipercross Universal Air Filter.
6. FSE Fuel Pressure Regulator.
7. Magnaflow Pre Muffler.
8. Magnaflow 4” Round SS Muffler.
9. Weapon X Ignition Boost System.
10. Weapon X Plasma Boost System.
11. MSD Ignition Wires.
12. Iridium Spark Plugs.
13. Upgraded Front Brakes (Larger disc & caliper).
14. Custom made SS break lines from Fren Tubo, Italy.
15. MoMo ‘Revenge’ Wheels.
16. New Tyres (Will be decided based on the rolling circumference).
17. MoMo Steering Wheel.
18. Cleaning of Injectors and Fuel lines.
19. Cleaning of Radiator.
20. Replace all fluids.
21. Check/Replace all belts, pulleys, bearings.
22. Complete Body Work.
23. Rust proofing.
24. Painting & Detailing.
25. Sound Insulation for Doors.
26. Replace all carpets.
27. Ford Fiesta 1.6S Wind Spoiler.
28. Replace Head Lights. LED light conversion.
29. Ford ‘ST’ Badges.
30. Ride On Tyre Protection System treatment on all Tyres.

Next: Baseline Dyno Run.

Last edited by PratikPatel : 30th May 2016 at 11:18.
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Old 27th May 2016, 17:25   #2
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Before I start this post I would like to respond to the posts; thank you all for your kind words. Yes, as some of very astutely pointed out this build pays homage to a great dad and celebrates a lifetime of love for automobiles.

As I have mentioned in my introduction, this is the 1st phase of the build. A lot more is being planned and I would love to hear from all of you what else could be done with the car. Though form is important, the primary focus will be performance and function. Without wanting to sound pompous, the ultimate aim is to make a car that is worthy of a Performance Ford/ Fast Ford magazine spread.

@shk 8896, thanks for your suggestions on the 1.6S steering rack. It has been added to the list of things to be done in the 2nd phase. Suspension upgrades have also been planned for the 2nd phase.

I will be posting a lot of photos along with my experiences with the build. Please be patient as anything good takes time. This will be a very active and interesting thread. Those who have followed my bike threads on Xbhp forum know what’s in store. However, I do not want to talk about cost. I am not here to debate prices, where something could cost ‘x’ when I paid ‘y’. Believe me when I say I know what I am talking about with the type of reactions I get from people. My bike builds cost more than the bikes themselves but they are uniquely mine and are some of the most tricked out machines in the country. However, the type of reactions I get is typically like “Why did you spend so much? You could easily have bought a bigger bike in this amount!”. So I request you all to please understand where I am coming from.

Baseline Dyno Run

I will start this section with something that my dad ingrained into me;

“Everything can be measured.
If you can’t measure something then you can’t control it.
If you can’t control it, you are leaving it chance.
If you are leaving it to chance, it will inevitably fail”.

While we were making the tentative list for the 1st phase of the build, the first thing on the list was doing a Dyno-run with the car in a ‘as is’ condition. It is extremely important to create a baseline against which all the changes made are measured.

Let me at the outset say that I am well aware of the different types of Dynos and their pros and cons. I am also aware of the fact that the same dyno set up can give varied results with deviations for the same car when tested at different times (the reason I am mentioning this is due to the results of the dyno run). The car was run on a DYNOmite Front wheel chassis dynamometer.

As mentioned above the purpose of this dyno run was to create a baseline. The car is 4 years old and has clocked 30,000 kms. The car is bone stock with nothing added to it other than a good after market ICE system. Other than the regular periodic services carried out by the Ford Dealer, only the break pads were changed with ones from Brembo as I found the breaks to be Achilles heel of this car (I was still not satisfied with the breaks after the installation).

The stock 1.6L Duratec specifications claim 100PS power at the crank-shaft. Therefore, it is reasonable to expect a minimum of 20% power loss at the wheel. Considering wear and tear of city running we factored in another 10% power loss. Therefore, while putting the car on to the dyno, Vikram of Motozone, the Dyno owner and I agreed that the car should make around 70 WHP based on previous experiences.

What we got at the end of 5 runs raised eyebrows and took us all by surprise. The car is making 97.31 WHP @ 6,400 rpm before running out of breath at 6,500 rpm. There was a sense of disbelief with suspicion among the many of the observers that we had already done something with the car. In fact, I was asked quite a few times what I had done to the car.

What this showed us was that the car was in reasonably good condition and we now had a baseline against which all future changes will be measured. The car will be put on the same dyno and tested again at the end of 1st phase to know what is the result of the changes. I am not interested in the absolute number that we got on the base run. What I am really interested is the change in numbers in percentile terms when we do the next dyno run.
Attached Thumbnails
Project ST: Ford Fiesta 1.6 Duratec-photo_20160530_123522.jpg  

Project ST: Ford Fiesta 1.6 Duratec-photo_20160530_123528.jpg  

Project ST: Ford Fiesta 1.6 Duratec-photo_20160530_123536.jpg  

Attached Images

Last edited by GTO : 7th June 2016 at 10:23. Reason: Moving your build posts up
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Old 27th May 2016, 17:37   #3
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While the dyno run was being done, parts were also ordered from various sources. While I will post the photos of some of the parts that were procured, I am unable to post more as my phone crashed (useless Android phone ) and most of the parts have now been installed. Therefore, I will post the photos of those parts as they have been installed on the car.

Magnaflow Pre muffler and Muffler

While planning for the build I was looking for a full exhaust system. After looking around for a good system made in SS304, I narrowed it down to Milltek Exhausts and Mongoose Exhausts. Unfortunately, Milltek has stopped making a full exhaust for this particular model of car and Mongoose does not offer one for this car.

I was in a dilemma, as I did not want to use a mild steel system made by Automec that was available with Pete’s. When I discussed my requirement with Vikram he recommended that he would custom make the headers and mid pipe from SS304 which will be matched to the flowed head and we can use Magnaflow muffler. I have seen installations of Magnaflow and they are always loud and sound crude. I was not interested in bringing the whole neighborhood down and earning the ire of my neighbors. Vikram assured me that it would not be loud and would be smooth sounding. Hence a set of pre muffler and muffler were ordered.

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Weapon X Ignition & Plasma Booster

The Duratec 1.6L has certain features, which while not unique are certainly a bit unusual (we will discuss these in more detail later). One of these is the ignition coil. The Duratec uses what is called as a tower coil and does not feature a distributor. It has what is called as a “wasted spark” system. The main advantage of a wasted system is that it does not have a high-tension distributor. This increases reliability of the ignition system as distributors can be affected by dampness, condensation, dirt and degradation of insulation material. However, like all OEM equipment the ignition coil is made to lowest acceptable quality at a cost.

Weapon X is one of the foremost specialists in ignition systems. They are official suppliers to NASA and Shelby. I have used the ignition systems from its sister concern called Takai Racing for my bikes with superlative results. Weapon X makes a replacement ignition coil for the OEM tower coil. According to Weapon X the Tower Coil along with the Plasma Ignition Booster gives anywhere from 5 to 20 WHP increase on a stock car depending upon the car model. Having experienced the Takai Racing ignition coils on my bikes I have no doubt this will be a great addition to the build.

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FSE Fuel Pressure Regulator

During our discussions Vikram suggested that we add an adjustable fuel pressure regulator right from the outset as we are planning for performance build, which will put added demands on the fuel system. The stock fuel pressure regulator will only go so far and will become a bottleneck. He was of the opinion that just by using the fuel pressure regulator we will get couple of horse out of the whole build. Hence, a FSE Fuel Pressure Regulator was added.

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Pipercams Stage 1 cams

In addition to the flowed head we planned for a Stage 1 Pipercams. The 1st phase is going to be a learning process for us. This is a engine on which neither Vikram has ever worked on nor have I ever taken a look into what the engine is all about. Therefore, what we learn in the 1st phase will create the foundations for future radical state of tune that the engine will ultimately attain.

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Momo Steering Wheel

This one is more form than function, but looks good and feels even better so it goes on to the car. Note that it is one of the original Italy made ones and not the regular run of the mill “made in China” ones.

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Momo Revenge Wheels

These I fell in love with the moment I saw them. There is something to be said about the way Italians design parts. There is certain poetry in the way they do things.

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Next: Flowed Cylinder Head

Last edited by GTO : 7th June 2016 at 10:24. Reason: Moving your build posts up
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Old 27th May 2016, 17:48   #4
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Flowed Cylinder Head

One of the first lessons I learnt early on when I started working on my 4 stroke bikes is that power in a 4 stroke is largely dictated by how good the design of the cylinder head is. Therefore the first and most obvious choice was to work on the head.

Before we go into any depth of what has been done with Duratec cylinder head there are a few observations about the engine setup. Most Japanese engines are fitted in the engine bay with the inlet facing the firewall and the exhaust facing the front of the car. With the Fiesta and the Duratec engine, Ford has mounted the engine with the inlet facing the front and the exhaust facing the firewall in the engine bay. The other feature to note is the way the engine is mounted in the engine bay. The engine is suspended from the bottom onto torque restrictor linkages and the top of the engine is mounted on a hydraulic dampener mount, which in turn is attached to the cylinder head.

The advantage of the above set up is that it isolates the engine vibrations and gives an excellent smooth driving experience. However, the disadvantage of such a system is that when linkages wear out or the hydraulic dampener mount starts leaking oil it can be a quite expensive on the pocket.

This system of mounting comes with another consequence. This engine is not meant for working on in the engine bay. For any substantial work other than oil change, air filter, spark plugs, ignition timing you will need to remove the engine to work on an engine bench/table or you will need to use an engine and gearbox support tool. However, even if you use an engine and gearbox support tool, you will still find it difficult to reach many places where nuts and bolts are fitted in a seeming awkward manner. While it may seem like a poor design it is in fact designed for being removed from the engine bay and worked upon on a engine bench/table which gives you 360 degrees access to all regions of the engine.

It took us at least 4 times the effort to work with the engine in the engine bay than on any other cars with traditional engine mounts. Hindsight being 24/24 we would have been far better off removing the engine and working on it. This is a lesson we have learnt by working on the engine and the next time we will remove the engine and work on it.

So my advice to anyone who wants to work on the Duratec, please remove the engine and work on it or be prepared for trials and tribulations.

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Inlet facing forward of the car. Difficult to work with the engine in the bay.

The Duratec engine is an all aluminum engine, which provides a very good base for performance tuning. The basic design is a robust framework that allows for lot of performance work. According to Vikram the internals are strong enough to handle anything upto 30% to 35% increase in WHP. After that the internals will require major upgrades. As mentioned earlier I decided that I wanted to start with the cylinder head before looking at the free flow exhaust. Why? Simple, as we were going to do a custom exhaust system we wanted the flow data in hand to take maximum advantage of any system we make. Most ready-made systems are tested with a stock car setup and do not let one take maximum advantage of any changes made to the engine thereafter.

Right from the outset I was very clear with Vikram that I wanted the head to be flow bench tested before and after the changes are made. Many so-called tuners simply make changes and install the head on the basis of certain assumptions. There is no empirical evidence to show that the changes made by them are the ‘right’ changes. It’s like a snake oil sales out there and if you are not careful, you will spoil your engine.

My next advice; do not go on hearsay, ask for and look at hard data.

Vikram agreed to do a flowed head, however he had one request; not to share details of the flow bench including photographs and test results with anyone in return he agreed to my presence while doing the tests and therefore, I can vouch for the fact that the head has been flow tested in my presence and the data derived from the tests is authentic.

While I cannot share the details I can give a brief about the flow bench tests. Broadly speaking there are 2 types of flow benches. One is called a 'dry flow bench' and the other is a 'wet flow bench'. A wet flow bench is supposedly better as it simulates the real world flow of charge more accurately than a dry flow bench. However, though I would have loved to have the flow tested on a wet bench, sadly we do not have the resources that are available abroad and therefore have to make do with a dry flow bench.

There are 2 types of test that any these flow benches adhere to; a 'Standard Pressure Drop' test and a 'Floating Pressure Drop' test. This flow bench is based on a Standard Pressure Drop test. There are pros and cons to both of them. While Floating Pressure Drop is now considered a de facto standard, there are plenty of Standard Pressure Drop test benches out there being used even today and have been used successfully of decades in development of engines in Formula 1 and other professional sports.

As this was the very first time a Duratec 1.6 head was being flow tested, jigs and fixtures had to made to mount the head onto the flow bench. This is a cost that I have borne as I wanted to get it done right. Many 'tuners' will try to discourage you by quoting a development cost, but believe me it will be worth it in the long run if you plan to make substantial changes.

For this build we concentrated on the intake and maximizing the intake flow. We are not playing around with compression and the shape of the combustion chamber. These factors we will leave for our ultimate build. Currently the aim is to maximize flow efficiency and cylinder filling.

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Head removed from the engine.

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Valves being removed.

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Valves removed.

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Cylinders. Note the exhaust manifold. Note the limited space between manifold and firewall. It has implications we will discuss in the custom made header section.

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Stock Inlet Track.

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Stock Inlet Track from Cylinder side.

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Stock Exhaust Track (We are not touching this for the moment).

Once we had the baseline figures, it was now time to start work on the ports. Looking at the results of the test it was decided to concentrate only on the inlet section of the head for the time being. Vikram created revised geometry for the inlet track to improve flow. The total time taken for the work was 2 weeks. After the work was completed the head was once again mounted on to the flow bench. The results were good, however it was noted that while the inlet track was very well sorted out, we were not getting the anticipated improvement in the flow, there was quite a lot of restriction from the exhaust part of the head, which was hampering the flow. After much debate it was decided that we would increase the exhaust valve orifice for exhaust by 1mm. Hence the head was once again taken down for resizing of the exhaust ports and custom-made 1 mm larger valves were ordered.

Once the work was completed the head was once again tested on the flow bench. We immediately saw a jump in the flow. The head was tested thoroughly. In the end we got an overall increase of 11% in the flow from the changes we had made. This was beyond our expectation (our expectation was around 5%) and shows how good the basic design of the head is. Due to the vital data that we have now procured from these tests we will now be able to build a better full free flow exhaust system and also a better fuel map.

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Finished Inlet Track.

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Finished Inlet Track from Cylinder Side.

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Finished Cylinder Head.

The results of the flow test were so good that Vikram immediately foresaw a potential bottleneck for the performance output. The Duratec 1.6 comes equipped with a 45 mm throttle body, which uses drive by wire feature. According to Vikram the throttle body will be a limiting factor and will need to be replaced with a larger throttle body or with a set of Individual Throttle Bodies (ITBs) to get the maximum gains out of the improved flow of the cylinder head. The same has now been added to the list of things that need to be done in the 2nd phase of changes.

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Stock Throttle Body (45mm).

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The next bottle neck.

However, let me make it clear that this does not mean that there will be no gains with the current setup. In fact, we expect to see substantial gains with the current setup.

Next: PiperCams Stage 1 cams & Cylinder Head Installation

Last edited by GTO : 7th June 2016 at 10:25. Reason: Moving your build posts up
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Old 27th May 2016, 18:22   #5
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PiperCams Stage 1 Cams & Cylinder Head Installation

Before I go into this section, I would like to mention a very important lesson that I learnt very early on in life; always have a Workshop/Service manual of the car/bike you own handy. Even if you are not going to work on the car or bike on your own, having the workshop manual handy will enable you to refer to what needs to be done, how it should be done and what is required to get it done. It will also prevent you from being taken for a ride by anyone working on your car/ bike. For workshop/service manuals I normally prefer the ones made by the respective manufacturers and if that is not possible then a manual published by Hynes.

Once we had finished porting and testing the cylinder head it was time to send it for through cleaning before assembly.

Vikram remarked that there is plenty of space for working on the head. The head has a very generous squish band and there is more than enough margin for oversize valves.

The valve train as designed by Ford is good for very long distances before you require checking for the adjustment of the valve trail lash. Ford has designed the valve train with shim-less buckets, which will require you to change the entire bucket with the next size based on the clearances as required. The buckets are numbered and you will need to have the list of bucket sizes handy when you adjust the clearances.

The advantage of shim-less buckets is that they weigh less and are good for high rpm setups. The disadvantage is that they cost more in comparison to just replacing shims and also can be a pain when required bucket sizes are not readily available. Shims are normally available is 2 or 3 standard O.D sizes and you can pickup a kit of shims easily from a good aftermarket shop. For example, for one of my bikes I use shims made by HotCams that cost about 5 cents per shim and I got a complete kit with the whole kit for about USD 50/-. This shim kit will last me for the lifetime of the bike.

All valves and valve seats were lapped and polished to ensure a perfect seat and seal. The valves were assembled into the head and tested for any leakage.

We procured a new set of all the gaskets from Ford. While they are a little expensive, they are worth the price in terms of quality.

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Old Gaskets

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Old Head Gasket Vs. New One

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Once the head was installed onto the cylinders, it was time to install the stage 1 cams. We selected the Stage 1 cams as our primary focus is to build a streetable car with enough punch in the mid range to make it an enjoyable experience. Lets face, while all of us would like to make all out power at high rpm for bragging rights, such a car or bike is actually not a pleasant one to drive or experience. Having a strong low and mid range makes for a more pleasant driving experience in the cities.

The stage 1 Pipercams are simple drop in cams that do not require any other changes if the cylinder head has not been altered for compression. Pipercams claim an increase of 8BHP with this simple swap.

While I say simple drop in, there is still a process to be followed as recommended by Pipercams. The cams and head were installed with a special engine assembly paste. The cams were fitted and torqued to company specified torque values.

Over here I will like to mention that it is extremely important that assembly of the engine should be done with proper torque specifications. If someone does not use the torque wrenches then I would very sincerely say that don’t allow the person to touch your car with even barge pole.

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Cylinder head mated to the Cylinder.

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PiperCams Stage 1 Cams installed.

After the head and the cams were assembled, we came to a very interesting phase of the build i.e. adjusting the ignition timing. While adjusting the timing on most cars is a visual process, Ford has followed very unusual method for setting the timing on the Duratec engine (I later learnt that Tata and Hyundai also have their own versions of the same method).

On most cars there are timing marks on the crankshaft or the flywheel, which are used as visual reference for setting the timing. With the Duratec, Ford has essentially dumbed down the process and made it idiot proof. Instead of visual marking, Ford uses a set of special tools to adjust the ignition timing. There are 2 very important tools; 1) Camshaft alignment plate and 2) the Crankshaft lock tool.

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Camshaft Alignment plate.

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Crankshaft Locking tool

The camshaft alignment plate is used to lock the camshafts in place after the camshafts have been turned to TDC on the 1st Cylinder. Once that is done, there is a blanking bolt at the bottom of the engine that needs to be removed and replaced with special Crankshaft locking tool. The tool is of a very precise length. After the tool has been installed, the crank is carefully turned till it touches the locking tool. Install the timing belt, check the alignment of the crank and cams again before tightening all the bolts to specified torque values, remove the tools and replace the blank bolt on the crankcase. That’s it; you are done with the timing. The end product is that the ignition timing is dead zero.

Other than offering highly accurate ignition timing, such a system also offers another big advantage. When you shave the cylinder head to increase the compression, you are also disturbing the stock timing by retarding it. The change needs to be compensated. Most times you will need to use special adjustable timing pulleys to adjust the time back required position. Ford’s system eliminates this need for timing pulley. You have the freedom to do what physical changes you want to the head and Ford system will ensure the timing is dead zero when you assemble the engine.

Once the assembly was completed, the valve clearance was checked once again and a final check was given to all nuts and bolts.

Vikram also cleaned the injectors and the fuel line before finally assembling everything back.

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Dirty Injectors

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Clean Injectors

Now came the moment of truth. The engine was cranked and it started within half a crank. As recommended by PiperCams, we ran the engine @ 2,500 rpm for about 30 minutes. PiperCams is very specific about this process. It does not recommend that the engine be run at idle rpm. Once the running was completed, the head cover was once again opened to examine the cams and do a valve clearance check.

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Cam Pulleys and Timing belt.
Note; The belt is elastic multi grooved. The engine does not have a belt tensioner.

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Cylinder Head with cams.

First Impressions

Our first impressions while positive left us a little bit disappointed. While there was a noticeable power increase, the engine was not revving freely. Shift into 1st gear and let the clutch go, the car jumps with a whole lot of eagerness that was noticeably missing early on. However, it was not revving to the top as expected.

After couple of rounds, Vikram identified the stock exhaust system and fueling as the main culprits for the muted performance. Therefore, the next step will be custom-made exhaust with Magnaflow muffler.

Next: Custom made Exhaust System SS 304 with Magnaflow Muffler

Last edited by GTO : 7th June 2016 at 10:26. Reason: Moving your build posts up
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Old 28th May 2016, 07:20   #6
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Default re: Project ST: Ford Fiesta 1.6 Duratec

What an introduction and what a car to mod.

We have plenty of Jap cars mod'd reviews on the forum.
A 1.6 and a Ford, can't wait for the rest.
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Old 28th May 2016, 07:41   #7
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Default re: Project ST: Ford Fiesta 1.6 Duratec

Haven't come across a single modded 1.6 fiesta (I am not counting basic intake-exhaust mods). Glued to this thread wish you all the best please post pictures and detailed process if you can
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Old 28th May 2016, 12:57   #8
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Default re: Project ST: Ford Fiesta 1.6 Duratec

Lovely introduction & was just hooked to it. Sorry about your father passing away. He would be watching you from up above with your mods. Why don't you put up some pictures of your ride. This thread is going to be one of best in the mod section. Awaiting your updates eagerly.
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Old 28th May 2016, 13:12   #9
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Default re: Project ST: Ford Fiesta 1.6 Duratec

Finally a full blown mod of a very deserving car Nice narration there, but could have used some pictures to help us relate more, while reading through. And sorry about your loss, though you have really good memories to carry for a life time.

Good luck with your thread, and please do provide more details and pictures soon.

Originally Posted by PratikPatel View Post
A few months later Ford introduced the new Fiesta with Duratec engine. I started planning to replace the Ikon. It took me about a year to finally replace the Ikon with a Ford 1.4 L Duratec.
I guess you meant the 1.3 Rocam? As Ikon had 1.3 Rocam, 1.6 Rocam and the 1.8 TDi , if my memory serves right... Fiesta came with a 1.4 DuraTec - the one you had bought.
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Old 7th June 2016, 10:36   #10
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Default Re: Project ST: Ford Fiesta 1.6 Duratec

Thread moved from the Assembly Line to the Modifications Section. Thanks for sharing!

Note: Some posts which were asking for updates have been removed as lots of new information has been added.
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Old 7th June 2016, 10:50   #11
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Default Re: Project ST: Ford Fiesta 1.6 Duratec

Oh well, Finally a worthy engine gets a makeover. Thats an amazing level of detail in the posts, shows how hands on you are with the project.
I am hoping this is a tunnel with a Sun at the end. If this works out, I have no qualms getting my clunker down to Mumbai and spend some time. Don't know though how feasible it would be on a 130k run engine, which however, has been overhauled at 100k, and has a new lower half(?).

Waiting for the rest, the next dyno, and the costs as well....
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Old 7th June 2016, 12:37   #12
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Default Re: Project ST: Ford Fiesta 1.6 Duratec

I'm not even done with your first post and here I am, commenting. Your growth story is very moving. You are blessed indeed sir. Thanks for sharing the personal story. It makes me want to aspire to be a better father too
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Old 7th June 2016, 13:25   #13
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Default Re: Project ST: Ford Fiesta 1.6 Duratec

@ pratikpatel

Wonderful to see true hands on passion. The way the thread is written speaks volumes ! Kudos to you for the project, wish you come to conclude it as per your expectations.

Looking forward to reading each post you make to the thread
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Old 7th June 2016, 13:49   #14
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Default Re: Project ST: Ford Fiesta 1.6 Duratec

That's one fantastically written story and an experience you have penned down. And a nice project that you have taken up and looking forward for the final product. I think that's the best tribute you can give to your dad! The alloys look sweet and will complement the car nicely once it is done.

He also taught me that no work is too small as long as it’s a honest day’s work
And that is the most beautiful line in the whole write up!
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Old 7th June 2016, 13:52   #15
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Default Re: Project ST: Ford Fiesta 1.6 Duratec

Wow! Amazing and inspiring story mate. It's really insightful with all the details you've provided. Always found the Fiesta to be a great driving car. Improving upon that is commendable. Hope, I'll be able to follow in your footsteps sometime.
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