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Old 26th November 2020, 13:27   #1
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Default The NCAP story - GNCAP vs ENCAP

A few years ago, people in Indian automotive sector and automotive enthusiasts were exposed to something called the safety ratings and NCAP (New car assessment program). While some people out of their own interest and exposure learnt a bit more about the technicalities of the safety ratings(crash ratings as popularly known), most of the common public and even few who are working in automotive industry turn a blind eye towards safety and the importance of these ratings while purchasing a new car.

Also, for the learned group regarding the safety ratings, there is now a lack of clarity in the ratings provided by several NCAPs. Yes, there are many and quoting some which are most seen around – GNCAP, ENCAP, Korean NCAP, ASEAN NCAP, Latin NCAP, C-NCAP, JNCAP, ANCAP(Australia), BNVSAP.

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Though their goal is towards encouraging manufacturers to put safer cars on the road and the customers to identify them, all these rating agencies follow different scoring procedure, test protocols and vehicle selection methods varying based on the target market and their roadmap.

Now, since the ENCAP and GNCAP are most widely discussed topics in our threads, I will try to put some high-level differences and similarities between the two.

ROAD MAP:

Firstly, the most important is to have a vision, and translating that vision to a practical roadmap with defined timelines and targets. So, there are different roadmaps for GNCAP and ENCAP based on the current state of safety in the market, OEMs and technology readiness, Infrastructure readiness (example: Lane keep assist needs proper lane markings as per standards on different roads), driving behaviour and geographical conditions etc… The road map is usually discussed and revised by working parties and partner OEMs.

GNCAP Roadmap: As per my opinion (may be wrong), GNCAP is not as forethinking as ENCAP at least was not, so their roadmap lags behind that of ENCAP.

Long term - http://www.globalncap.org/road-map-f...vehicles-2030/

Short term -
The NCAP story - GNCAP vs ENCAP-short-term-rm-g.jpg

ENCAP Roadmap: Now, the ENCAP is complex than other ones at present and continues to do so with a comprehensive roadmap. It is difficult to add every detail into the roadmap, so please check the link(pdf) for vision 2025.
https://cdn.euroncap.com/media/30700...ap-2025-v4.pdf

The NCAP story - GNCAP vs ENCAP-en-tl.jpg

Selection of vehicles:

Generally, the NCAP agencies select their vehicles from production lot randomly or purchase from showrooms in order to keep check on manufacturer’s special treatment of the vehicles during production which are sent for testing.

Due to resource and time limitation, the ENCAP test most popular models and variants which are entering the sales, and which are already being sold. The cars are bought anonymously, and VIN numbers are sent to OEMs to confirm the specification and feature details as package.

Variant selection – ENCAP gets the most popular variant from manufacturer since it makes more sense to test the car, which is sold in most numbers, with a check that the safety equipment should be standard in that variant. Though additional safety features can be on higher variants and manufacturers can sponsor vehicles and ask to be tested - this will have to do with something called dual rating which will be explained in later section.



How to read the “Stars”:

The more the safer. So, high number of stars mean that the vehicle faired well in testing and also all the safety equipment is available right from the lowest variant for the score. There may be multiple test conducted on same vehicle model based on the improvements made by manufacturer, so always check for latest ratings (example: Tata Nexon scored 4 stars initially, then 5 stars after few improvements).

Dual Ratings: This is currently on ENCAP and not on GNCAP. From 2016, though the vehicles tested must have all safety equipment as standard in that variant. The manufacturer can add a “safety pack” as optional. So, all cars will have a basic safety rating and higher variants can achieve higher ratings by additional features and equipment.

Now, the below definition is for overall safety and not just for AOP (adult occupant protection)/COP (child occupant protection). It includes pedestrian/cycling safety (VRU) and safety assist (ADAS). So a vehicle scoring 0 star in safety assist is still called a 0 star car in overall safety rating but can have 4-5 stars in other segments. (refer next section for detail).

The NCAP story - GNCAP vs ENCAP-star.jpg

Scoring:

This is like and linked to the above section, bit with a difference of how the scoring varies in GNCAP and ENCAP.
The safety ratings/scoring is divided different pillars/sections in all NCAPs, but this is where the NCAP ratings vary fundamentally apart from the testing procedures itself. These sections and pillars are constantly reviewed and revised via roadmap discussions.
Now, I am sure about the ENCAP scoring but the GNCAP scoring is on slightly partial side (so, correct me if anyone has knowledge about it).

ENCAP:
As for 2020 procedure, it has 4 sections under which there are multiple scenarios are tested and scored. They are,

The NCAP story - GNCAP vs ENCAP-en-sco.jpg

If you notice, there are different scenarios/tests with individual scores and total score in points is calculated for each vertical. And there is a weightage given under each vertical to determine the overall score – highlighting the most importance given to adult occupant protection for overall rating. To achieve 4 or 5 stars in that vertical the score must be greater than the percentage (points) mentioned in the rating requirements.

In an example if a car scores 5 stars in AOP, 4 in COP, 4 in VRU and 2 in SA, the overall rating is 2 stars. But the car can be marketed as 5 stars in AOP. It is like the “*” in our TV ads and mentions terms and conditions apply.

Assessment protocols –
These are the test methods and scoring specifications(thresholds), which are too technical and vast. So attaching the links to people who are interested.

AOP - https://www.euroncap.com/en/for-engi...nt-protection/
COP - https://www.euroncap.com/en/for-engi...nt-protection/
VRU - https://www.euroncap.com/en/for-engi...ru-protection/
SA - https://www.euroncap.com/en/for-engi...safety-assist/

GNCAP: I cannot find a scoring sheet for GNCAP. But based on my study of protocols they are only having AOP and COP sections.

The NCAP story - GNCAP vs ENCAP-gn-sco.jpg

Assessment Protocols:

AOP - http://www.globalncap.org/wp-content...ocol-Adult.pdf
COP - http://www.globalncap.org/wp-content...ocol-Child.pdf

So is GNCAP ratings on AOP/COP is same as ENCAP – The answer is no, because the scoring and test procedures are slightly different.

And the test cases covered in ENCAP is more comprehensive than that of GNCAP.

But one can co-relate to the separate scenarios mentioned. And most importantly, we have at least started giving importance to some safety rating now in India. We have to go a long way, but still we have to start somewhere and that’s where we are now.
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Old 26th November 2020, 14:49   #2
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Default re: The NCAP story - GNCAP vs ENCAP

I have one question - The Euro NCAP is more or less a Government backed program and they receive monetary support from the EU, UK as well as manufacturers themselves. Where does Global NCAP receive funding from?
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Old 26th November 2020, 15:12   #3
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Default re: The NCAP story - GNCAP vs ENCAP

Quote:
Originally Posted by audioholic View Post
I have one question - The Euro NCAP is more or less a Government backed program and they receive monetary support from the EU, UK as well as manufacturers themselves. Where does Global NCAP receive funding from?
Each NCAP have their list of members and partners, so they are funded by them.

For GNCAP: from their official report of 2017,

"Global NCAP (“the Charity”) benefits from the generous support of
the FIA Foundation (“The Foundation”) and Bloomberg Philanthropies
(“Bloomberg”). During the year to 31 December 2017 the charity
received €1m (2016: €1m) of grant funding from the Foundation and
€876k (USD $957k) from Bloomberg Family Trust.

Source link: http://www.globalncap.org/wp-content...report2017.pdf
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Old 26th November 2020, 18:00   #4
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Default re: The NCAP story - GNCAP vs ENCAP

Superb thread. I can only blame myself for not having thought of something like this. But here is my 2 cents to this. But some titbits at first.
  • The NCAP was established in 1979 by the NHTSA in the USA.
  • Their goal was to promote competitive rivalry and use it to motivate them to develop safer cars - Much more safer than minimum standards as defined by the regulations-
  • Different countries came up with their own versions (or adaptions) of this NCAP which is what we see today.
    • USNCAP
    • IIHS
    • EU-NCAP
    • Australia NCAP
    • China NCAP
    • Korea NCAP
    • Japan NCAP
    • C-IASI (China Insurance Automotive Safety Index)
    • Latin NCAP
    • ASEAN NCAP
    • Bharat NCAP
    • Global NCAP
EUNCAP, established in 1997 has been playing a leading role in this push for safer vehicles and has definitely catalysed other NCAP protocols in this regard.

The basic differences between EUNCAP and GNCAP is already explained by our friend and TBHP member @saikarthik. I would like to add to this by sharing with all of you, the following.

Scoring of the EUNCAP is shown below. Split into 4 sections, they are not all equally weighed.

Adult Occupant Protection is 40% (Read more here)
Child Occupant Protection is 20% (Read more here)
Vulnerable road users is 20% (Read more here)
Safety Assist is 20% (Read more here)

Attachment 2085815

As @saikarthik pointed out correctly, Global NCAP does only consider Adult Occupant Safety and Child Occupant safety each with its own points scale and intrapolation mechanisms. This is because of the lack of a standardised and developed infrastructure in some of the nations that are a part of the program.

I will elaborate more on that. But first we need to realise that the Global NCAP is not India specific. It considers the bare minimum of safety standards amongst the participating nations. This means that their focus is not just safer cars.
  1. Road safety management
  2. Safer roads and mobility
  3. Safer vehicles
  4. Safer road users
  5. Post crash response
Adult protection

@saikarthik already pointed out that that there is a maximum of 16 points up for grabs.

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Data from the dummy is taken and analysed. A lower and an upper limit is set and all values inbetween are presented on a linear scale.
  • Drivers and passengers with airbags: 4 points
  • Drivers and passengers without airbags: 2 points
  • Neck
  • Chest
  • Knee, Femur and Pelvis
  • Lower leg
  • Foot/Ankle
The penalties considered for Driver:
  • Head:
    • Unstable contact on the airbag
    • Hazardous airbag deployment
    • Unstable contact on steering without airbag
    • Displacement of the steering column
  • Chest:
    • Displacement of the A-Pillar
    • Integrity of the passenger compartment
      • Door latch or hinge failure
      • Buckling or failure of door structure
      • Seperation or near seperation of facia rail to A-Pillar joint
      • Loss of door aperture strength
    • Contact between chest and steering column
  • Knee, Femur and Pelvis
    • Contact with facia (In varying degrees)
    • Concentrated loading from components on Knee
  • Lower Leg
    • Upward displacement of worst performing pedal
  • Foot/Ankle
    • Footwell rupture
    • Pedal blocking
The penalties considered for Passenger:
  • Unstable Contact on the airbag
  • Hazardous airbag deployment
  • Incorrect airbag deployment
  • Knee, Femur & Pelvis, Variable Contact
  • Knee, Femur & Pelvis, Concentrated loading
Door opening during a crash as well as the foor opening forces after impact is considered for points reduction. Seat belt reminders are also considered.

So to summarise all adult occupant safety,
1x Head + 1x Neck - 4 points
1x Chest - 4 points
2x Knee + 2x Femur + 1x Pelvis - 4 points
2x Leg + 2x Foot/Ankle - 4 points

Child protection

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The 49 points that are up for grabs are split up into the following as seen above and from @saikarthiks post. They are also weighted individually to sum them up to 49 points. I am not aware of the calculations that go behind this scoring.
  • Dynamic assessment (12 points)
  • CRS assessment (4 points)
  • Vehicle based assessment (13 points)
My views on this.

1. India has been consistent in the volume of sales and was ranked 6th in the world in 2012. We could as well be the 3rd biggest in the world in 2022. For every 5 cars produced on Indian soil, we sell domestically 4 of them, and export 1 of them. And this is a 2014 statictic.

2. We lose over 140k lives every year. Clearly something needs to be done here. This is a 2010 statictic.

3. The following graphics from a RASSI presentation seems to explain the fundamental sources of these accidents. It doesnt consider all accidents. But in the small sample considered, this is wnat happened.

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4. India is still a longway off. In Germany, for a similar timeline...

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Polulation is way less. 1400 millon to 82 million. But this is a collective effort on behalf of the three most fundamental influence spheres.

- Safety
- Infrastructure
- Education

So what can we do?

1. Safer forms of mobility - GNCAP is a very important first step in this regard. 10 years ago I wrote a letter to the ARAI regarding this. I dont know if they even received my letter. But something is being done now and I am very happy about it. But we need to consider safety for people who are considered vulnerable road users - motorcyclists, bicyclists, pedestrians, animals etc.

2. Practice defensive driving - Accommodating for the mistakes for the other road users. This includes a whole array of lists from usage of high beams and fog lamps inside city, excessive and loud horns, aggressive driving because someone cut off, over speeding, underestimation of a curve etc.
  • Always wear seatbelts and insist all occupants do the same
  • Limit number of occupants to the max. carrying capacity
  • Avoid distractions - no phones absolutely
  • Maintain safe distance between vehicles (Follow the 10+1 rule: Basically Speed/10 should be the minimum safe distance. Plus one just in case)
  • Avoid speeding at all costs no matter what
  • Allow for other drivers mistakes
  • Maintain your vehicle
3. Infrastructure - Sadly, this is a very vast topic and a whole different ball game. So I do not have an opinion on this at this point of time.
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Old 26th November 2020, 19:27   #5
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Default re: The NCAP story - GNCAP vs ENCAP

Another difference that IMO is quite major is that due to lack of funds at GNCAP, the number of tests done are less. Whereas in Europe, not having a safety rating for a car is a deal breaker for many, which is why manufacturers send their vehicles voluntarily.

However at GNCAP to score a 5 star rating Frontal Impact test and Side Impact test is necessary, which also means that the manufacturer has to send the vehicle for testing in required quantities by himself.

The NCAP story - GNCAP vs ENCAP-screenshot_202011261910042.png

But ofcourse, except for our Indian Manufacturers, no one feels the need to send the vehicle for testing voluntarily
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Old 27th November 2020, 11:22   #6
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Default Re: The NCAP story - GNCAP vs ENCAP

Mod Note: Thread moved to the Road Safety forum. Thanks for sharing!
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Old 27th November 2020, 17:00   #7
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Default Re: The NCAP story - GNCAP vs ENCAP

Thank you @VaidhiR for your insight and valuable add-on to technical details. I got most of my doubts cleared with your explanation.

I was able to dig a bit more and find the ENCAP scoring sheet of actual testing and how the conditions are described for scoring derived from observations during the testing. It is again vast and thorough, but repetitive methods for different test scenarios. So, I will post the AOP and other scoring methods which are different in nature but leave the link for complete scoring card.

Pre-Note: I am re-arranging the content of the sheet for ease of explanation and covering the content in single image. Also, forgive me for image clarity on few of them due to lot of content.

First, there is general overview where all the required details and specifications of the vehicle are mentioned as input to the testing and scoring confirming all safety equipment present as base.

The NCAP story - GNCAP vs ENCAP-1.png

Then comes the overall rating score sheet where all the test scores are consolidated into single tab but segregated into the 4 sections mentioned earlier to calculate the result (overall rating).

I am not adding any screenshot here because this is what we get as a report usually and known to everyone.

Next is the individual test procedures that comes under the 4 sections, remember we have multiple tests and I am just showing one or two as example.

So, considering,

AOP – Frontal MPDB (Mobile Progressive Deformable Barrier), the test is done and observation are noted in the form of peak “g” forces experienced, compressions which are converted to points based on the thresholds mentioned in the formulae for different body areas, then penalties are noted to reduce the points(based on incorrect airbag deployments, etc). Then all the scores are added up (not a direct summation) to give score for Frontal MPDB. The scoring pattern is same for Frontal FW test.

The NCAP story - GNCAP vs ENCAP-2.jpg

AOP – Side MDB (Mobile deformable Barrier), similar to Frontal FW & MPDB, peak g forces are measured, but additionally Lateral compression for the chest.

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AOP - Rescue, Extrication and safety: This is tested for assess the ease of extricating the victims post-crash and if any emergency services are auto alerted by vehicle system.

The NCAP story - GNCAP vs ENCAP-4.jpg

There are many test cases in AOP and many more considering the other sections. I will try to add more details one by one in upcoming posts. But the VRU and Safety assist section is too big to cover which I will plan for another time.
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Old 29th November 2020, 10:26   #8
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Default Re: The NCAP story - GNCAP vs ENCAP

Quote:
Originally Posted by superguy282 View Post
Another difference that IMO is quite major is that due to lack of funds at GNCAP, the number of tests done are less.
How I wish there was a way for common man to donate to them!
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Old 29th November 2020, 12:33   #9
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Default Re: The NCAP story - GNCAP vs ENCAP

Great thread, Kudos to all contributors above for the knowledge.
But despite all this it's hard to know which car is safer.
May be experts can help us with an example, what's the safest Car under 15 lakh on road.. altroz/Nexon (so called 5 Star GNCAP with 2 air bag) or a Polo/vento/rapid family (4 star) or Yaris(5 Star) or our latest star Thar (4 star). I know they all are different category but that might give us a perspective to understand all this.
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Old 29th November 2020, 16:37   #10
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Default Re: The NCAP story - GNCAP vs ENCAP

Bharat New Vehicle Safety Assessment Program



(Adding my own two cents to this thread)

BHPians, you might not know about this, but India also has a proposed NCAP called the Bharat New Vehicle Safety Assessment Program (BNVSAP)

Just like other NCAPs, cars sold in India will be tested and given a star rating based on their safety performance. According to the Wikipedia page I found, It is the 10th NCAP in the world and is being set up by the government of India.

Some more part of the Wikipedia page:
Quote:
The program was expected to begin mid-2014, but postponed to start from 2017. (Because of delay in setting up labs and other facilities)

Within two years of implementation, new cars sold in India will need to comply with voluntary star ratings based on crash safety performance tests. Critical safety features such as airbags, ABS, and seat belt reminders will become standard in cars sold in India resulting from rankings and mandatory crash testing. Offset front crash, side, and rear impact tests will be required by 2017. Cars will gradually have to meet more stringent norms such as pedestrian protection, whiplash injury and child restraint systems standards and requirements.

It is proposed that this BNVSAP would start the official testing from October 2017 onwards. The car testing protocols is defined by ARAI as follows:

Frontal offset testing (64 km/h proposed)
Side impact testing
Pedestrian protection testing
Rear impact testing
Child dummy dynamic crash testing
Points would be awarded to the car based on the safety features in the car like ABS, seat belt reminders, child lock, and Electronic Stability Control.
Like Euro NCAP, even BNVSAP will crash test vehicles at 64 km/h for frontal impacts which is the average speed in India.

Crash test facilities are being set up and are regularly updated on a site called NATRiP; which stands for National Automotive Testing and R&D Infrastructure Project.

Their website says that it is completely a GoI funded project with a total project cost of Rs. 3727.30 crore and that this is the largest and one of the most significant initiatives in Automotive sector so far.
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Old 29th November 2020, 17:02   #11
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Default Re: The NCAP story - GNCAP vs ENCAP

So many CAPS! I wish there was one standard crash test covering all aspects in all countries. Humans as far as I know have the same build all over the world I don't understand why some tests are superior than others. Why can't there be a body like FIFA or ICC with a common set of rules?
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Old 29th November 2020, 18:46   #12
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Default Re: The NCAP story - GNCAP vs ENCAP

Quote:
Originally Posted by CarNerd View Post
So many CAPS! I wish there was one standard crash test covering all aspects in all countries. Humans as far as I know have the same build all over the world I don't understand why some tests are superior than others. Why can't there be a body like FIFA or ICC with a common set of rules?
While this would be ideal, the original NCAP protocol was created by the United States National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. After which all other governments followed suit. However not all of them are government controlled and some of them like GNCAP are NPOs. Also, not all NCAPs share all of their info in a comprehensive way like Euro of GNCAP. Hence unless the governments come up with a standardized procedure, it won't happen.
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Old 29th November 2020, 20:01   #13
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Default Re: The NCAP story - GNCAP vs ENCAP

Quote:
Originally Posted by CarNerd View Post
So many CAPS! I wish there was one standard crash test covering all aspects in all countries. Why can't there be a body like FIFA or ICC with a common set of rules?

Quote:
Originally Posted by superguy282 View Post
Hence unless the governments come up with a standardized procedure, it won't happen.
It is quite difficult. Even for regulations the working parties of UNECE are trying to harmonize the regulations common for every part of the world, but they are too complex to address correctly with optimum performance and its evaluation due to,

1. Diversity in - Geography, Driving patterns and behavior, penetration of technology, relevance to particular scenario.

2. Resources - Can't literally test all scenarios which are not relevant to a particular market - waste of funds and time.

3. Government Egos - U.S and Europe has had always this difference even in regulation and enforcements.

One example that I quoted in another thread on relevance and diversity in requirements is that though ENCAP is comprehensive, there is a clause in ASEAN NCAP which is called Advanced rear visualization and also motorcyclist safety(more specific in blind spot detection system) in, this is not in any other NCAP(Motorcyclist safety is addressed in ENCAP as Powered two wheeler but its a bit different).

This is a valid scenario in a developing nation where the justification is more density of two wheeler traffic.
And for Advanced rear view - It is completely different from our parking cameras, it requires a rear camera that can cover entire field of view of IRVM upto 30m behind the vehicle. This is done because in developing countries vehicles with small boots are generally over loaded and IRVM is of no use.

The vehicle can get additional points for night visibility, glare adaptation, whether adaptation(camera washing or placed inside rear windshield in wiping zone). It is quite complex and costly affair.

These kind of specific scenarios can't be covered as general requirements because the maturity, user behavior of developed markets are different.

Source Link: https://www.aseancap.org/v2/wp-conte...-SEPT-2020.pdf
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Old 29th November 2020, 20:46   #14
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Default Re: The NCAP story - GNCAP vs ENCAP

Quote:
Originally Posted by Gurgaon_lyon View Post
But despite all this it's hard to know which car is safer.
May be experts can help us with an example, what's the safest Car under 15 lakh on road.. altroz/Nexon (so called 5 Star GNCAP with 2 air bag) or a Polo/vento/rapid family (4 star) or Yaris(5 Star) or our latest star Thar (4 star). I know they all are different category but that might give us a perspective to understand all this.
Well, it is difficult to explain that, and I am no expert. But let me give you my perspective of how I would select/rank vehicles based on the test report comparison.

You need to download the complete test result – the fact sheet from GNCAP or whatever NCAP you are referring to. While doing so, please check the year of test for both vehicle because the test procedure may vary if the test agency had adopted new revision and there may be second test for a same model with latest rating. This will make you sure that you are comparing apple to apple.

For the example, I am selecting the cars from same segments and similar ratings to give you a better way of finding differences – Tata Nexon and Mahindra XUV 300.

The NCAP story - GNCAP vs ENCAP-mx-tn.jpg

Stars and the Scores: Obviously you need to check which car has a greater number of stars in AOP and COP.
1. AOP – both cars have the same rating, for equal number of stars, you need to check the score in points to find a winner. XUV 300 is better in this section.
2. Since the XUV 300 has more stars in COP and a better score.
3. Also, please check the Body shell condition – It is better if it is mentioned stable. So both cars are same here.

AOP assessment observations:
4. Now, check for the protection offered in different body areas with colour coding. The Head, thigh areas are green in both, so the protection is good in both the cars, but when it comes to chest area XUV has better protection for at least driver, and ankle protection is better in Nexon. So, inference (as per my analysis) XUV is safer due to more critical area protection. Remember injury to chest and rib fracture is more severe than leg fracture.

COP assessment observation:
5. Both offer standard features and at same level, but XUV 300 is clearly better due to score.

The NCAP story - GNCAP vs ENCAP-sum.jpg

Test Summary:
This is another important section which is usually not read thoroughly. But you can see key points here like, the XUV 300 has been tested additionally for side impact as well. The reason for Nexon’s low child safety is explained here due to marginal protection in chest area. Also, XUV 300 has additional feature of passenger airbag deactivation – this means that technically you can mount Child seat in front passenger seat (I don’t recommend though). And the 5 stars for Nexon is valid only for vehicles produced after certain date and VIN.

So purely on safety if you want to rank - XUV300 it is as per this example.

Last edited by saikarthik : 29th November 2020 at 20:47.
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Old 30th November 2020, 09:25   #15
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Default Re: The NCAP story - GNCAP vs ENCAP

Quote:
Originally Posted by saikarthik View Post
...the XUV 300 has been tested additionally for side impact as well.
I beg to differ. The Nexon also went through the side impact test as can be seen in this video provided by none other than the Global NCAP.



On the other hand, Tigor/Tiago was not subjected to this test as it is clearly mentioned in the fact sheet - "UN95: not performed". I hope that the 4-star rating would hold even if the side impact test is performed. But, it also makes the comparison with 2-star rating of WagonR, Nios etc. somewhat unfair assuming the others underwent this additional test (this is not to suggest that these cars come close to Tiago in terms of safety).
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