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Old 1st May 2021, 23:58   #1
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Default Visiting the first of its kind - The USS Nautilus @ Groton Submarine Museum (Connecticut, USA)

It looked as if the naval commando's training scenario was coming true. He tightened the grip on his automatic assault rifle and his eyelids narrowed as he looked askance at his fellow servicemen. He was confused.

And the Hyundai sat there inexorably, emitting visible tailpipe steam in the cold March 2016 afternoon. It was 33 degrees Fahrenheit and the skies were overcast. A slight sleet was underway. The car was fully laden with 5 brown guys in puffy winter coats, gawking at the armed men as a line of cars waited to enter behind the Hyundai Verna with rental plates on it. The commandos had been examining the IDs of naval staff as they entered past the tactically placed boulders at the entrance to the Naval Submarine Base in New London, Groton, Connecticut. The Mystic river flowed nearby ominously and the sea gulls were pretty raucous.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

I was the one at the wheel of the Hyundai, unfortunately. I wasn't a religious extremist seeking to attack their naval base as he probably suspected. When setting out from home, I had keyed in the Submarine Museum's address on the Garmin navigation device in the car and the device had almost brought us 50 miles faithfully to the destination; the operative word being "almost". It had told me to turn right at a point when there was a gate up ahead as the only other alternative and that's what I'd done - I turned right. The banal feminine voice announced "You've arrived at your destination" just as I saw armed commandos examining something that the driver in the car ahead of us had handed out with his outstretched arm. As our turn came, the armed commando signaled with his free arm to stop our car as his other arm nestled an assault rifle. As I rolled down the window, I nonchalantly gave him my Connecticut state issued Driver License, mimicking what the driver ahead of me had done in order to get permitted within. "Why were there armed guards outside a museum?" I wondered. The man was clearly taken aback and I caught him looking at his mates standing on the other side of the car. My 4 friends in the car sat quietly. It then struck me that we were somewhere we weren't meant to be. The man in the car ahead of us hadn't handed over his driving license to the guard at the gate, quite clearly. If driving licenses were enough to gain entry onto defense bases...well, the sheer absurdity of the thought explains the first commando's reaction.

I remarked to the nearest man in camouflage that I had only intended to drive into the submarine museum. He smiled and informed me to turn the car around and wait for my license to be returned to me. This man was way more relaxed than the other guy who had gotten worked up by us. I turned the car in between the bollards onto the exit lane and pulled over. Presently a guard handed my license back to me. He had half-gloves on which covered his palms but left his fingers exposed. "In this weather? I would rather wear something that protects my finger tips", I thought, because mine hurt from the chill right then. We rolled up our windows to keep the heat in. Out we drove and hung a right turn and lo and behold, we were inside the museum's premises within a minute.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

This visit meant a lot to me, as I'm a big fan of all things military. The friends with me were kind of "meh" about it, but they didn't mind being there. But I was excited.

I would wind up visiting the USS Nautilus museum once more with my dad a year down the line.

The pictures that follow are compiled from my two visits to the world's first nuclear submarine; and also the first submarine ever to cross over beneath the North Pole, beneath the ice cap.

My only regret? I lost a chance to visit the sub along with moderator the MAG because I had watched one too many YouTube videos about nuclear submarines the night before and I slept right through his phone calls to me on the appointed morning. But still, two visits weren't too bad, considering most people who visit the North Eastern US do not even bother visiting this historic mecca and they pile on to NYC and other supposedly attractive destinations. If you ask me, there's no place I'd rather be than in an armed forces museum of any sort anywhere on the planet.

Last edited by locusjag : 2nd May 2021 at 13:06.
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Old 2nd May 2021, 00:38   #2
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Default re: Visiting the first of its kind - The USS Nautilus @ Groton Submarine Museum (Connecticut, USA)

The USS Nautilus was launched into the Thames River, Connecticut, on 21st January 1954
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This is how the submarine looks from the outside today. The perspex bubble on the deck towards the bow was made to shield visitors from rain and snow as they descend via retro-fitted civilian-friendly steps. The conversion of this once-elite war machine to a civilian-friendly museum boat was made by the Mare Island Naval Shipyard between 1983-1985, off the Pacific coast, before it got towed to the Eastern sea-board where it rests now.
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The following diagram is on display atop a placard just outside of the boat where it lies docked. Note that the portions of the boat from the reactor till its stern remain sealed off to civilian visitors. The tour of the boat is entirely conducted within its front-half. And you are looking at a representation of the world's first ever Pressurized Water Reactor that was used to power a sea-going vessel. This design became the basis for all nuclear-powered vessels thereafter.
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Somewhere in this area, this sub had sustained blue-on-blue damage when it struck the bottom of the aircraft carrier USS Essex in 1966 during routine exercises.
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On the morning of 17th January 1955, at 11 am EST, Nautilus' first Commanding Officer, Commander Eugene P. Wilkinson, ordered all lines cast off and signaled the memorable and historic message, "Underway on Nuclear Power." The tip of this very same nuclear spear, as it appears today, can be seen in the next picture. You can catch this view by peering out of the perspex bubble on the deck. In fact, as I took this snap, I was chatting with a serving US Naval personnel as he stood there at guard. We spoke of the largely prevalent arranged marriages back in India versus the high divorce rates prevalent in the US with their love marriages. It was perhaps not wise to subtly berate his culture for he in turn dropped a hint that the nuclear subs in his force could go farther, faster and deeper than anything India has. Well, we have our familial structures intact in India and the USA has the finest nuclear subs on the planet. The twain shall remain leagues apart in some spheres!
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The floating museum was thrown open to the public on 11th April 1986. In 2002, it went through a preservation at the Electric Boat installation right next door for $4.7 Million. This is the world's one and only nuclear submarine museum and it's free to visit and to park your car at. All its attending staff are serving or ex-Navy personnel.
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This boat bears the flag of its nation proudly. But it is a flag bearer in more ways than one. Its arrival during the cold war meant that the rules of anti-submarine warfare had been reduced to nought in an instant. This boat broke all known records (at the time) in terms of time spent submerged without surfacing, speed beneath the surface and depth (in excess of 700 feet) shortly after its launch.
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Last edited by locusjag : 2nd May 2021 at 13:17.
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Old 2nd May 2021, 14:58   #3
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Default re: Visiting the first of its kind - The USS Nautilus @ Groton Submarine Museum (Connecticut, USA)

It is easy for a visitor today to get inside, roam about and get out of it - for free. That's of course, as long as you don't drive into the neighboring naval base like I did my first time around! But there was a time, not too long after the world had awoken to a new era in the aftermath of the A bombs that went off in Japan, when this boat was viewed with suspicion by almost everyone who saw it. It was incredibly ambitious on the part of the American leadership and scientists no doubt, to envisage and execute such a project; but it was also seen as suicidal by the lay populace who knew nothing about it. Nor could just anyone waltz into it. The FBI would perform a thorough background check before granting sailors approval to set foot on the USS Nautilus.

Quote:
"I was teased that if I was going to this nuclear power programme, I might become irradiated and sterile and not have any children."

Jerry Armstrong was a 23-year-old sonar operator when he volunteered to work on a new top-secret submarine. His wife was four months pregnant at the time and they knew they wanted another child.

"I was concerned, I discussed it with my wife but we knew that other naval and civilian personnel were already working on a prototype so we decided it would be safe."

Armstrong hadn't told anyone about his decision so his family and his in-laws were surprised when they got a visit from the FBI, asking what kind of student he had been and other questions about his lifestyle. His wife's family background was checked closely. Some of the others who'd volunteered for the programme were rejected.

"They were just picked up from the classroom and we never saw them again. The only thing we heard was that their family history didn't satisfy the investigation."

Armstrong was then sent to work on the prototype nuclear reactor in the desert in Idaho, where he and the others spent nine months learning about nuclear fission. Before then, his knowledge of nuclear power was limited to the atomic bombs dropped on Japan.

They were constantly monitored as they worked, he says. "The crew wore two testing devices. One was a film badge… literally made of photographic film which was worn on our belts. The other was a dosimeter which was like a ballpoint pen which we wore in our shirt pockets and would record any radiation."

Finally the Nautilus was ready and on 21 January 1954 it was launched into the Thames River in Connecticut. Twenty thousand people flocked to see it. The wife of President Eisenhower, Mamie, "christened" the submarine by breaking a champagne bottle on it as it slid into the water.

Jerry Armstrong and his wife did go on to have another child, and he says he could not have played his part in the story of the Nautilus without his wife's generosity and understanding.

"When we launched in January 1954, the families went to watch us. One elderly man there said 'that thing is going to go to sea and blow up like an A-bomb'.
Excerpts (and some pics) taken from - https://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-25...%20the%20water.


Stepping inside the boat
We were handed a guided audio-tour handset with earphones by the Navy personnel within the perspex bubble. Then we descended via the tourist-friendly steps beneath the bubble and came into a subterranean world that was anything but tourist-friendly. Our world had shrunk. Pathways were just enough for my 6'4" frame.
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Doorways were little more than stretched portholes that had rotary seals on them on hinged doors. I had to double down in a comic fashion to get through them.
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The audio tour would require us to press a button corresponding to a labeled number in each compartment of the sub and a recorded voice would narrate the specialty of the spot we were in. But to be frank, I didn't follow the audio guide as it proved to be a sensory overload. You have to be there to gauge what I felt. It's no wonder that navies around the world send psychiatrists with submarine crews even today, given the phobia-inducing spaces within the capsule.

This seems to have been the Captain's cabin. It's as Kingly as it gets down there.
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The 2nd in Charge's cabin?
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The following two cubicles had to have been officers' cabins, albeit a bit down the totem pole in space and hence, I guess, lower down in the designations too, I guess.
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Here's where the rest of the crew would rest on their 6 hours off duty while the rest would be keeping the boat afloat and on course:
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Har, harr! For here be a loo (I think, not fully sure) that could have potentially sunk the boat, if ever a sailor had been careless when flushing it. There's a record of a German U-boat having been sunk by a careless sailor who visited the loo. I have read about the same convoluted mechanism that existed even on later era submarines; you had to open and close a number of valves in order to safely eject the contents of the toilet bowl into the sea. Get it wrong and sea water would gush in and sink the boat. I faintly remember reading about bloopers by sailors when they forgot to close one valve and they ended up with the contents of the bowl getting blown on their face. I am not sure if the latter incidents occurred with the same toilet flush mechanism as the one seen here though. Surely better designs would've come along in due time. Right? Or was this a loo that didn't come with these grisly possibilities when you flushed it? No idea. Although, my gut feeling tells me that this is a potentially boat-sinking loo because the USS Nautilus was essentially a WW2 era submarine, except for its Nuclear heart and its other related capabilities (endless O2 supply etc.).
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Next to the loo, this was a wash basin that I spotted along the main corridor. This must've been where the rank and file of the sailors on board will have brushed their teeth or shaven their beards (if at all they did the latter when underway). If you scroll up to the pics of the living quarters on the sub, the officers have a wash-basin right in their cabins; whereas the rank and file don't.
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Last edited by locusjag : 2nd May 2021 at 16:51.
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Old 2nd May 2021, 16:15   #4
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Default re: Visiting the first of its kind - The USS Nautilus @ Groton Submarine Museum (Connecticut, USA)

In the Conning Tower (a.k.a the con)

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This sticker has what seems to be a list of communication logos and their corresponding meanings. No idea how these messages were sent or received. You can click on the below image and look at the coded messages contained in it.
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Here's a zoomed-in screen grab of one of the communication codes contained in the pic above:
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This looks like the Captain's seat. Uneasy would be the hind part that tries to rest there - literally and otherwise! The man in that seat cannot hesitate for a second nor seem unsure of what to do next. Not when hundreds of pounds per square inch of sea water is pressing on the boat and the lives of all the men in it rests upon those shoulders!
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The pics that follow show 3 men seated alongside with wheels and levers at their control to steer, dive and elevate the boat via the boat's rudders and planes:
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The pic that follows shows the central atmospheric monitoring system (CAMS) gauge. We have to keep in mind that this was (probably) the first ever submarine to have fresh air generated on board even when submerged. The CAM gauge was essential to ensure that the crew were getting to breathe properly when working with what must have been an unproven technology at the time, when it came to fresh O2 generation.
Quote:
"Previously submarines stayed under for up to 48 hours and then they had to surface to refuel, recharge batteries or take on air but the nuclear-powered submarine could stay submerged for years if need be," says naval historian and author Don Keith, so it could go anywhere in the world without detection.

"That is the ultimate in stealthiness and what gives it the amazing military advantage. They made their own oxygen, their own water and the reactor core could survive for years without having to be serviced."

Armstrong remembers that the recycled air had a strange effect on him.

"I hated cottage cheese, but one time we stayed submerged for a long time and when the ship surfaced I began to crave cottage cheese. I think breathing the recycled air changed my metabolism."

When they surfaced and began to pump fresh air back into the Nautilus "it was so clean and so sweet it made you light-headed".
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Last edited by locusjag : 2nd May 2021 at 17:05.
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Old 2nd May 2021, 17:14   #5
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Default re: Visiting the first of its kind - The USS Nautilus @ Groton Submarine Museum (Connecticut, USA)

Miscellaneous pics
I remember encountering the torpedo room first of all, after descending the tourist-friendly steps from the entrance up top at the bow.
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And here's an interesting comparison. Look at this officer's table below:
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And now compare that pic above with this one right below. It's the same table, but at a different time and place. Commander William R. Anderson, USN, of USS Nautilus (SSN-571), briefs the ship's officers here on ice conditions along her transpolar route, August 1958.
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Guns stowed on-board. If you've watched Crimson Tide, you'd know the unlikely scenario (amidst a mutiny) when guns are needed on a submarine. At least, I watched that movie and this is all that comes to my mind. Assault rifles and shotguns on a nuclear attack submarine. Hmm. I doubt if the sailors on the USS Nautilus ever had to fire these arms in anger at an adversary.
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What's that, an IBM typewriter?
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The baseball in this pic is a souvenir from a baseball match held between the crew of the Nautilus and the USS Constitution. There were other such souvenirs adorning this wall in the cafeteria area, but this one caught my eye. The USS Constitution is the oldest floating enlisted naval vessel, made of wood and replete with sails and stuff. I wonder if it's the same ship we're thinking of here. And the date noted on the ball says May 2004 I think. So was it an exhibition match between retired crew who've served on both the vessels?
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These hatches were seen in multiple places in the walkways. This one seems to lead to a store-room beneath one of the main walkways. The lid can't have been too wide and it wasn't wide enough for anyone but a thin human being to clamber down.
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Here's where the cook would have made omelettes and toasts for the crew. And concerning the cook, here's something I read:
Quote:
Submariners have to be competent in every area - so the cook has to be able to drive the submarine too. "I don't think I've ever seen anything as close as the brotherhood of submariners," he says.
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The dishwasher's work area:
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Spotted these speakers all along the boat. Can you imagine being hundreds of feet beneath the surface and hearing your captain's voice through these?
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A coffee vending machine, a milk vending machine and an ice cream vending machine. Would've done pretty well for the constantly beleaguered crew.
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Last edited by locusjag : 2nd May 2021 at 17:50.
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Old 2nd May 2021, 17:57   #6
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Default re: Visiting the first of its kind - The USS Nautilus @ Groton Submarine Museum (Connecticut, USA)

Pics from outside the boat in the museum
You can spent time in a covered section where historical artifacts related to submarines are kept, including a submarine from the American Civil War era! I'm limiting the pics to a narrow set of objects though:

A Tomahawk cruise missile adorns the ceiling of the indoor section:
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From the Captain's log, at a momentous occasion:
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An ICBM launch hatch that's been preserved from a retired ballistic missile submarine (a.k.a, "boomers"):
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Looks like a deck gun from a WW2 era American U-boat. I regret not saving the handout I had describing the details of each of these exhibits!
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a
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This is the Mk-48 torpedo, which was used by the USS Nautilus at the time of its retirement. The MK-48 remains in use even today in more modern submarines of the US Navy.
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A scale comparison of how far the US Navy's submarine force has come. The USS Holland was their very first proper submarine, circa 1897. The USS Ohio (launched 1979) is the lead boat of her eponymously titled class comprising other ballistic missile subs such as herself.
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These screws are legendary, make no mistake!
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Looking back now, I wish India had it in her to preserve the original INS Vikrant. A similar museum such as this would have been quite something to commemorate our victory over Pakistan in 1971. The Americans have the resources to preserve the icons that defined their history and more importantly, they've shown the willingness to foot the bills to do it too. I admire them for doing it time and again.

Sources:
1. https://www.history.navy.mil/browse-...was,Dwight%20D.
2. https://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-25...%20the%20water.

Last edited by locusjag : 2nd May 2021 at 18:20.
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Old 3rd May 2021, 06:45   #7
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Default Re: Visiting the first of its kind - The USS Nautilus @ Groton Submarine Museum (Connecticut, USA)

Thread moved from the Assembly Line to the Reviews section. Thanks for sharing!

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Old 3rd May 2021, 09:19   #8
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Default Re: Visiting the first of its kind - The USS Nautilus @ Groton Submarine Museum (Connecticut, USA)

Wow, WOW and WOW. Excellent article and such descriptive photos. Thank you for sharing and for the effort you have made.

USS Nautilus was indeed the very first true submarine that could sail underwater for as long as its crew could endure or as long as food stocks would last. It was a marvel of engineering to fit a nuclear powerplant into the confined beam (ie width) of the hull of only 28 feet. So put two Corollas end to end and within that width a nuclear plant had to fit. And to have done this in the early 1950s was outstanding led by the irascible Admiral Hyam Rickover.

Other than speed, endurance and depth records the USS Nautilus also set new standards for accommodation & living facilities for the crews never before seen on a sub.

Few ships amongst world navies define a class of warships or a new class of warships and set a whole new standard so far ahead that their name becomes synonymous with that class. USS Nautilus is certainly the first position holder not only as the first true submarine but also as the first vessel of any kind powered by nuclear power.

The Soviets managed to get their first nuclear boat commissioned only 7 years later in 1961, the K-19. It was however a wreck in matters of nuclear power. It wasn't till 1967 (Yankee class boats) that the Soviets developed reliable and safe power plants. The British did not have their own home designed nuclear plant functioning at sea till 1966. The French till 1971.


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Originally Posted by locusjag View Post
Looking back now, I wish India had it in her to preserve the original INS Vikrant. A similar museum such as this would have been quite something to commemorate our victory over Pakistan in 1971. The Americans have the resources to preserve the icons that defined their history and more importantly, they've shown the willingness to foot the bills to do it too. I admire them for doing it time and again.
That's like a red rag to this bull. Sir, we had more important things such as buying two new Boeing 777's for VIP transport costing Rs 7000+ crores but we did not have a few tens of crores needed to preserve INS Vikrant and the Rs 15 crores needed per year to keep the hull in a good state of repairs.

When we received our first subs (the outstanding Russian Foxtrot class, 2400 tonne boats) there were only two commodes for a crew of 90!!! Unlike us who like to do 'it' every day the Russians in their cold weather and fibre starved diet go only once every few days. Needless to say this created some complications till extra capacity was put in place.

Last edited by V.Narayan : 3rd May 2021 at 09:36.
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Old 3rd May 2021, 10:12   #9
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Default Re: Visiting the first of its kind - The USS Nautilus @ Groton Submarine Museum (Connecticut, USA)

Great thread. Thanks for the detailed photos and description. Reminded me of the U-boat movies of WWII.
I had seen the submarine thats parked in San Francisco. I guess that was even smaller than this.

We cant maintain our archaeological sites better. Also, I think in US, people themselves are more aware of the wars and see things related to them more than here.
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Old 3rd May 2021, 10:35   #10
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Default Re: Visiting the first of its kind - The USS Nautilus @ Groton Submarine Museum (Connecticut, USA)

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Originally Posted by V.Narayan View Post
That's like a red rag to this bull. Sir, we had more important things such as buying two new Boeing 777's for VIP transport costing Rs 7000+ crores but we did not have a few tens of crores needed to preserve INS Vikrant and the Rs 15 crores needed per year to keep the hull in a good state of repairs.
Yes indeed! What's 15 crores per year when it comes to preserving sources of national pride? The first Vikrant was the source of IN's carrier competency, which is something that the Chinese are in the process of mastering only now. It's no little thing.

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When we received our first subs (the outstanding Russian Foxtrot class, 2400 tonne boats) there were only two commodes for a crew of 90!!! Unlike us who like to do 'it' every day the Russians in their cold weather and fibre starved diet go only once every few days. Needless to say this created some complications till extra capacity was put in place.
Oh boy, that's mortifying.

By the way, the serving naval personnel I chatted with on the deck of the Nautilus did acknowledge that the Russian origin subs that India operates are pretty good and serve India's posture very well in littoral waters.

Those matters aside, please see if you can provide a commentary on some of the instruments I have photographed sir. I can't tell what some of them are. For instance, what's that sticker with the communication codes for - "ship on fire", "man overboard" etc.?

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Originally Posted by srishiva View Post
We cant maintain our archaeological sites better. Also, I think in US, people themselves are more aware of the wars and see things related to them more than here.
The Americans preserve the instruments of their victories - military or otherwise. I will write a thread with the pics I have of their other museums; I remember seeing the F-14 that shot down Libyan Mig 23s in the Gulf of Sidra incident in the Smithsonian museum in Chantilly, Virginia.

The equivalent of that would be our preserving the Mirage 2000 that bombed Tiger Hill (the video of which is available on Shiv Aroor's YouTube channel). I hope the IAF does that in the future when the time comes.

Last edited by locusjag : 3rd May 2021 at 10:40.
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Old 3rd May 2021, 11:08   #11
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Default Re: Visiting the first of its kind - The USS Nautilus @ Groton Submarine Museum (Connecticut, USA)

Brilliant thread. Thanks for sharing.
Reminded me of my visit to INS Kursura submarine museum in Vizag. What hits you when you enter the underwater behemoth is claustrophobia! Despite making minor modifications to allow free movement of visitors, it is still cramped. With no personal space and subjected to long hours in dimly lit conditions, I think it needs a special breed of humans to serve in a submarine.
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Old 3rd May 2021, 12:12   #12
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Default Re: Visiting the first of its kind - The USS Nautilus @ Groton Submarine Museum (Connecticut, USA)

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Brilliant thread. Thanks for sharing.
Reminded me of my visit to INS Kursura submarine museum in Vizag. What hits you when you enter the underwater behemoth is claustrophobia! Despite making minor modifications to allow free movement of visitors, it is still cramped. With no personal space and subjected to long hours in dimly lit conditions, I think it needs a special breed of humans to serve in a submarine.
Thanks for sharing. I know that Vizag has the Kursura and also a retired Russian Bear TU 95 on the beach, but please do share - do you get to go within the INS Kursura? From your description, it sounds like it. I'll be sure to visit it after the pandemic.
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Old 3rd May 2021, 12:18   #13
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Default Re: Visiting the first of its kind - The USS Nautilus @ Groton Submarine Museum (Connecticut, USA)

Have visited this sub back in 2004 or early 2005, when I was living in Stamford, CT. I dont remember much, and definitely not the base near it.

Since it is decommissioned, and set up for visitors, the feel is a little subdued, compared to what I felt when I went into one our ships - again a long time back.

Thanks for sharing !
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Old 3rd May 2021, 13:32   #14
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Default Re: Visiting the first of its kind - The USS Nautilus @ Groton Submarine Museum (Connecticut, USA)

Thanks for an outstanding write up. Much appreciated. I always wanted to visit her, but never got around to it.


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Although, my gut feeling tells me that this is a potentially boat-sinking loo because the USS Nautilus was essentially a WW2 era submarine, except for its Nuclear heart and its other related capabilities (endless O2 supply etc.).
On the inside she does look very similar to a WW2 era boat. Very cramped, and a lot of equipment is even similar to what was used in the typical WW2 ear.

But she is really a very different boat all together, not only was she nuclear, but also a very different hull shape. Many of the hull improvements from the Greater Underwater Propulsion Power (GUPPY) were incorporated in her design.

Also the Nautilus Patch was designed by the Walt Disney Company. Not many ships can boast about this.

Also, she was the submarine to have an inertial navigations system.

Inertial navigation system (INS) were only just becoming operational. In essence navigating by INS is a form of ultimate dead reckoning. You start from a known position. Various sensors measure the (de) acceleration in all directions. From there you can calculate where you are.

In theory INS was ideal for a submarine. Because under water there is really no way to determine your position, other than dead reckoning. So the Nautilus did carry a very advanced (for its time) gyro compass. Starting from a known position and known speed and direction you can calculate where you are. Over time INS becomes less accurate due to drift. But even that is a known error and can be accommodated for.

Here is an excellent article about how they navigate under the polar ice gap and the initial challenges of the INS>

https://www.usni.org/magazines/proce...th-pole-icecap

These days a INS fits into a shoebox, but in those days they were big machines.
Even today INS is used in navigation on planes. Its main advantage that it does require a signal from outside (e.g. like a radio beacon or GPS) so it can not be tampered with.

Anorak fact: INS was the primary source of navigation for all long haul planes for several decades even with GPS installed. The full certification of GPS as primary source for (commercial) airline navigation did not happen until the end of last century.


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Originally Posted by locusjag View Post
This sticker has what seems to be a list of communication logos and their corresponding meanings. No idea how these messages were sent or received. ]
These are so-called international maritime signal flags. So just a flag and you run it up a flag pole or line. All ships are required (still, to date) to carry a complete set of these flags onboard. By flying a certain flag other ships, or harbour authorities know what you are doing or want to be doing.

Certain combination of flags have certain meaning as well. Most navies have added a few of their own unique signal flags to the total.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intern...e_signal_flags

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Old 3rd May 2021, 14:58   #15
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Default Re: Visiting the first of its kind - The USS Nautilus @ Groton Submarine Museum (Connecticut, USA)

Great Thread. I remember the INS Kursura in Vizag as few members have pointed out. Imagine being inside this tube for months to gather at a stretch. Lockdown in the Navy has a totally different meaning. .

PS : I hope the navigational controls have changed from bare basic push buttons to electronic screens at least.
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